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In-line rheology of cement grouts - Feasibility study of an ultrasound based non-invasive method
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1667-8919
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Grouting is used in underground construction to reduce the water flow into tunnels and caverns and to limit the lowering of the surrounding groundwater table. Due to their wide availability and low cost relative to other materials, cement based materials are commonly used as grouts and, in this context, the rheology of the cement grout is an important factor. Rheological properties of cement grout such as viscosity and yield stress are commonly measured off-line using laboratory instruments, and some simple tools are available to make field measurements. However, these methods often lack accuracy and reliability. Although the rheological properties of the grout used play a fundamental role in design and execution, no method has yet been developed to measure these properties in-line in field work.

 

In this work, for the first time, an in-line rheometry method combining the Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique with Pressure Difference (PD) measurements, known as “UVP+PD”, was successfully tested for continuous in-line measurements of concentrated micro cement based grouts. The feasibility of using the UVP+PD method depends on the in-line determination of the rheological properties and time dependent behaviour of the cement grouts. A test set-up consisting of a combination of an experimental “flow loop” and a conventional field grouting rig – UNIGROUT E22H – from AtlasCopco, was used to investigate the feasibility of determining the rheological properties of cement grout using the UVP+PD method under field conditions. A laboratory based test set-up was used to further investigate the rheological properties in a more controlled environment.

 

The velocity profiles were measured directly in-line. The shape of the velocity profiles was visualized, and the change in the shape of the profiles with concentration and time was observed. The viscosity and yield stress of the grout were determined using rheological models, e.g. Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley. In addition, rheological properties were determined using the non-model approach (gradient method) and the tube viscometry concept and were compared with results obtained using the rheological models. In addition, the obtained rheological properties were subsequently compared with off-line measurements using a conventional rotational rheometer.  The UVP+PD method was found to be capable of determining the true rheological behavior of cement grout regardless of the rheological model, providing the opportunity to visualize the change in the shape of the velocity profiles. Furthermore, it was possible to make an accurate determination of the velocity by ultrasound velocity profiling at a very flow rate (i.e. 1liter/min). The ultrasound velocity profiling was also found to be a reliable tool for determining the characteristics of the grout pump. In conclusion, the UVP+PD method was demonstrated to be a promising new in-line tool for determining the rheological properties of commonly used cement based grouts and the changes with concentration and time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , viii, 27 p.
Series
Trita-JOB. LIC, ISSN 1650-951X ; 2021
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122642OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122642DiVA: diva2:623139
Presentation
2013-05-27, D2, Lindstädvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130530

Available from: 2013-05-30 Created: 2013-05-24 Last updated: 2013-05-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. In-line measurements of rheological properties of cement-based grouts: Introducing the UVP-PD method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-line measurements of rheological properties of cement-based grouts: Introducing the UVP-PD method
2012 (English)In: Grout2012, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Civil Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-75020 (URN)2-s2.0-84888346523 (Scopus ID)
Conference
4th International Conference on Grouting and Deep Mixing, Marriott New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, February 16-18, 2012
Note

QC 20130115

Available from: 2012-02-04 Created: 2012-02-04 Last updated: 2013-05-30Bibliographically approved
2. In-line rheometry of micro cement based grouts - a promising new industrial application of the ultrasound based uvp plus pd method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-line rheometry of micro cement based grouts - a promising new industrial application of the ultrasound based uvp plus pd method
2012 (English)In: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 22, no 4, 42783- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurements of the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids and suspensions having a solid volume fraction of about 30% or more is of major interest from an industrial point of view. Cement paste and cement grouts for injection grouting applications, with water to cement ratios typically in the range of 0.4 and 0.6 - 0.8 by weight, are two examples of industrial fluid systems. Few in-line techniques are available on the market that can be used for these fluid systems and under realistic field conditions. The so-called UVP+PD in-line rheometry method combining the Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique with Pressure Difference (PD) measurements is a promising new tool for industrial applications. This paper presents an initial pre-study that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the UVP+PD method using cement grouts for process monitoring and control of grouting applications under realistic field conditions. The UVP+PD method was tested and found successful for continuous inline measurements of concentrated micro cement-based grouts with water/cement ratios of 0.6 and 0.8. The test set-up consisted of a combination of an experimental " flow loop" and a conventional field grouting rig - UNIGROUT, from Atlas Copco. The rheological properties were determined, directly in-line and the parameters obtained were subsequently compared with off-line measurements using a conventional rotational rheometer.

Keyword
Cement-based grouts, Flow visualization, In-line rheometry, Permeation grouting, Ultrasound velocity profiling, UVP+PD method
National Category
Civil Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105430 (URN)10.3933/ApplRheol-22-42783 (DOI)000310494400009 ()2-s2.0-84867344378 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20121122

Available from: 2012-11-22 Created: 2012-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. In-line rheological measurements of cement grouts: Effects of water/cement ratio and hydration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-line rheological measurements of cement grouts: Effects of water/cement ratio and hydration
2015 (English)In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 45, 34-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rheological properties of cement based grouts change with water/cement ratio and time, during the course of hydration. For this reason, it is desirable to be able to measure this change continuously, in-line, with a robust instrument during the entire grouting operation in the field.The rheological properties of commonly used cement grouts were determined using the Ultrasound Velocity Profiling combined with the Pressure Difference (UVP. +. PD) method. A non-model approach was used that directly provides the properties, and the results were compared with the properties obtained using the Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley rheological models. The results show that it is possible to determine the rheological properties, as well as variations with concentration and time, with this method.The UVP. +. PD method has been found to be an effective measuring device for velocity profile visualization, volumetric flow determination and the characteristics of the grout pump used.

Keyword
cement grout, in-line rheology, UVP+PD, grouting, ultrasound velocity profiling, cement rheology, hydration.
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122641 (URN)10.1016/j.tust.2014.09.003 (DOI)000347022600004 ()2-s2.0-84907701665 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

QC 20150202. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2013-05-24 Created: 2013-05-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Grout pump characteristics evaluated with the UVP+PD method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grout pump characteristics evaluated with the UVP+PD method
2012 (English)In: IRSM International Symposium, EUROROCK 2012, Stockholm, 2012, 1-14 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Rock grouting is performed to decrease the hydraulic conductivity around underground structures, such as tunnels and caverns. Cement grouts are often used and pumped into joint and fractures of the rock formation.

Piston type pumps are mostly used for high pressure rock grouting. A pulsation effect is inevitable when using this type of pump due to the movement of the piston. The effect of this pulsation on rock grouting is yet to be known but believed to be benefi-cial for the penetration of the grout. Current flow meters used in the field are not accu-rate enough to determine the fluctuation of the flow rate when it is less than 1 l/min. In addition, currently available flow meters measure the average of the flow over a cer-tain period of time, hence the true fluctuation of the flow rate due to the pulsation of the piston remains unknown.

In this paper, a new methodology, the so called ‘Ultrasound Velocity Profiling – Pressure Difference’ (UVP+PD) method has been introduced to show the pulsation effect when using a piston type pump. The feasibility of this method was successfully investigated for the direct in-line determination of the rheological properties of micro cement based grouts under field conditions (Rahman & Håkansson, 2011). Subse-quently, it was also found that this method can be very efficient to measure the fluctu-ation of the flow rate for different types of pumps.

From a grouting point of view the UVP+PD method can be used to synchronize the pressure and flow of a piston type pump by measuring the pulsation effect. Conse-quently it can be used as a tool for the efficiency and quality control of different types of pumps.

Keyword
cement grouts, pump characterization, grouting, ultrasound velocity, profiling, UVP+PD
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-107161 (URN)
Conference
IRSM International Symposium, EUROROCK 2012, 28-30 May, Stockholm
Note

QC 20121221

Available from: 2012-12-21 Created: 2012-12-06 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved

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