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Measuring the quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence systems using presence, spatial formations  and sociometry
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4368-4751
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) system is characterized by a video conferencing system which is mounted on a mobile robotic base. The system allows remote pilot users to move the robot around while communicating with local users situated in the robot’s environment. One of the most promising application areas for MRP systems is to deploy them in homes of elderly who are in frequent contact with health care professionals and/or alarm operators. Using MRP systems, elderly can get in immediate contact with these services even without leaving their homes. However, this poses some challenges for the health care professionals and alarm operators. The alarm operators traditionally communicate with their clients using the telephone while the health care professionals see their patients face-to-face with little interference of computer applications. The encounters between health care professionals and patients typically take place at clinics. Neither the health care professionals nor the alarm operators visit the elderly in person. Accordingly, they have no knowledge about the layout of the homes or where the elderly may reside. Thus, the social communication between them and the elderly via MRP systems is more complex than their traditional interaction with elderly.

This compilation thesis makes a contribution towards understanding how interaction is affected by MRP system embodiment. The work focuses on measuring quality of interaction in MRP systems deployed in domestic settings in elder care. The thesis proposes a set of useful tools for measuring interaction quality. These tools are presence, spatial formations and sociometry. They were selected based on their ability to capture important characteristics for communication via MRP systems, e.g. social communication and mobility, and have been evaluated in experiments with real end-users, that is with alarm operators, health care professionals and elderly. The tools used to conduct the experimental evaluations of MRP systems include video-based evaluations, driving sessions and retrospective interviews. These methods were carefully chosen and take into consideration the organizational background of the participants involved and the challenge of conducting experiments with the aforementioned groups of users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2013. , p. 111
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 56
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences
Research subject
Information technology; Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29088ISBN: 978-91-7668-942-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-29088DiVA, id: diva2:622369
Public defence
2013-09-12, Hörsal T, Teknikhuset, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A review of mobile robotic telepresence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of mobile robotic telepresence
2013 (English)In: Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1687-5893, E-ISSN 1687-5907, Vol. 2013, p. 902316-Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mobile Robotic Telepresence (MRP) systems incorporate video conferencing equipment onto mobile robot devices which can be steered from remote locations. These systems, which are primarily used in the context of promoting social interaction between people, are becoming increasingly popular within certain application domains such as health care environments, independent living for the elderly and office environments. In this review, an overview of the various systems, application areas and challenges found in literature concerning mobile robotic telepresence is provided. The survey also proposes a set terminology for the field as there is currently a lack of standard terms for the different concepts related to MRP systems. Further, this review provides an outlook on the various research directions for developing and enhancing mobile robotic telepresence systems per se, as well as evaluating the interaction in laboratory and field settings. Finally, the survey outlines a number of design implications for the future of mobile robotic telepresence systems for social interaction.

National Category
Interaction Technologies Computer Sciences
Research subject
Information technology; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29309 (URN)10.1155/2013/902316 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877272273 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ExCITE
Note

Advances in Human-Computer InteractionVolume 2013 (2013), Article ID 902316, 17 pages

Available from: 2013-06-03 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
2. An exploratory study of health professionals' attitudes about robotic telepresence technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory study of health professionals' attitudes about robotic telepresence technology
2011 (English)In: Journal of technology in human services, ISSN 1522-8835, E-ISSN 1522-8991, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 263-283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the results from a video-based evaluation study of a social robotic telepresence solution for elderly. The evaluated system is a mobile teleoperated robot called Giraff that allows caregivers to virtually enter a home and conduct a natural visit just as if they were physically there. The evaluation focuses on the perspectives from primary healthcare organizations and collects the feedback from different categories of health professionals. The evaluation included 150 participants and yielded unexpected results with respect to the acceptance of the Giraff system. In particular, greater exposure to technology did not necessarily increase acceptance and large variances occurred between the categories of health professionals. In addition to outlining the results, this study provides a number of indications with respect to increasing acceptance for technology for elderly.

Keywords
Evaluation, human-robot interaction, organizational perspective
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Information technology; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23315 (URN)10.1080/15228835.2011.639509 (DOI)2-s2.0-84859363579 (Scopus ID)
Note

The final version of this article can be read at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15228835.2011.639509

Available from: 2012-11-08 Created: 2012-06-08 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
3. Measuring the quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence: a pilot's perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring the quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence: a pilot's perspective
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 89-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a method for measuring the quality of interaction in social mobile robotic telepresence. The methodology is in part based on Adam Kendon's theory of F-formations. The theory is based on observations of how bodies naturally orient themselves during interaction between people in real life settings. In addition, two presence questionnaires (Temple Presence Inventory and Networked Minds Social Presence Inventory), designed to measure the users' perceptions of others and the environment when experienced through a communication medium are used. The perceived presence and ease of use are correlated to the spatial formations between the robot and an actor. The proposed methodology is validated experimentally on a dataset consisting of interactions between an elder (actor) and 21 different users being trained in piloting a mobile robotic telepresence unit. The evaluation has shown that these tools are suitable for evaluating mobile robotic telepresence and also that correlations between the tools used exist. Further, these results give iportant quidlines on how to improve the interface in order to increase the quality of interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
Keywords
mobile robotic telepresence, F-formations, methodology, presence, telepresence, quality of interaction
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences
Research subject
Information technology; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24238 (URN)10.1007/s12369-012-0166-7 (DOI)000333758400007 ()2-s2.0-84872555676 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ExCITE
Note

Funding Agency:

EU under the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme

Available from: 2012-08-06 Created: 2012-08-06 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
4. Using retrospective interviews to assess interaction quality in mobile robotic telepresence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using retrospective interviews to assess interaction quality in mobile robotic telepresence
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we focus on spatial formations when interacting via mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) systems. Previous research has found that those who used a MRP system to make a remote visit (pilot users) tended to use different spatial formations from what is typical in humanhuman interaction. In this paper, we present the results of a study where a pilot user interacted with ten elderly via a MRP system. Intentional deviations from known accepted spatial formations were made in order to study their effect on interaction quality from the local user perspective. Using a retrospective interviews technique, the elderly commented on the interaction and confirmed the importance of adhering to acceptable spatial configurations. The results show that there is a mismatch between pilot behavior and local user preference and that it is important to evaluate a MRP system from two perspectives, the pilot user’s and the local user’s .

Keywords
F-formations, Mobile Robotic Telepresence, MRP systems, Quality of Interaction, Retrospective Interview, Spatial Formations, Spatial Configurations
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences
Research subject
Information technology; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29091 (URN)
Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
5. Towards measuring quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence using sociometric badges.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards measuring quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence using sociometric badges.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The field of mobile robotic telepresence for social communication is in rapid expansion and it is of interest to understand what promotes good interaction. In this paper, we present the results of an experiment where novice users were given a guided tour while maneuvering a mobile robotic telepresence system for the first time. In a previous study, it was found that subjective presence questionnaires and observations of spatial configurations based on Kendon’s F-formations were useful to evaluate quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence. In an effort to find more automatized methods to assess the quality of interaction, the study in this paper used the same measures with an addition of objective sociometric measures. Experimental results show that the quantitative analysis of the sociometric data correlates with a number of parameters gathered via qualitative analysis, e.g. different dimensions of presence and observed problems in maneuvering the robot. The implications of this form a basis upon which a methodology for measuring interaction quality can be obtained.

Keywords
Mobile Robotic Telepresence, F-formations, Spatial Formations, Presence, Telepresence, Sociometry, Methodology, Quality of Interaction
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences
Research subject
Information technology; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29095 (URN)
Note

Now also published as an article:  http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pjbr.2013.4.issue-1/pjbr-2013-0005/pjbr-2013-0005.xml?format=INT

Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved

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