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High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Man-Technology-Environment research centre (MTM))
Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7338-2079
2013 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 8021-8030Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vanern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the mug/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 20, no 11, p. 8021-8030
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29083DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1567-3ISI: 000325811600047OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-29083DiVA, id: diva2:622274
Funder
FormasAvailable from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Comparative avian developmental toxicity of PFAAs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative avian developmental toxicity of PFAAs
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants that can commonly be found in environmental matrixes and wildlife from all over the globe. The PFAAs have been used in applications such as water and dirt repelling treatments for textiles, oil-resistant paper coatings and fire-fighting foams. Four studies were designed to evaluate the occurrence of PFAAs in Swedish populations of birds, the developmental toxicity of different PFAAs and species sensitivity differences as well as possible modes of action for the toxicity. The studied species were domestic chicken, and the wild species great cormorant and herring gull. Cormorant and gull eggs were collected from bird colonies in Lake Vänern, Sweden. Chemical analyses were performed on some of the eggs to determine the occurrence of 15 PFAAs in the eggs. The other eggs and eggs of domestic chicken were incubated and injected with solutions of the PFAAs PFOS, PFOA, PFBS and PFUnDA. The eggs were candled every 1-3 days to determine viability. High levels of PFAAs, mainly PFOS followed by PFUnDA, were found in the herring gull and great cormorant eggs. PFOS was found at concentrations up to 1163 ng/g and 771 ng/g in cormorant and herring gull, respectively. In the toxicity tests, chicken was found to be more sensitive than the wild species and cormorant was in general the least sensitive species. PFOA was found to be the most toxic of the chemicals followed by PFOS, PFBS and PFUnDA in decreasing order. Comparing these results with the levels of these chemicals found in the eggs of herring gull and great cormorant, PFOS is the chemical of most concern. Although PFOA had the highest toxicity, the levels found in the eggs were very low. In an additional study, the hepatic β-oxidation in developing chicken embryos after in ovo exposure to PFOS was studied with a tritium release assay. PFOS was found to increase the β-oxidation of palmitic acid at PFOS concentrations 3-7 times lower than the average egg levels in cormorant and herring gull. Therefore the occurrence of effects on the fatty acid metabolism cannot be ruled out. The doses of effect on embryo survival in the toxicity and the levels found in the herring gulls and cormorants gives a small margin of safety for the wild populations. Continued environmental monitoring and further studies on the toxicity of PFAAs that occur at high environmental concentrations is important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2013. p. 54
Series
Örebro Studies in Biology, ISSN 1650-8793 ; 7
Keywords
chicken, herring gull, cormorant, PFAA, PFOS, PFOA, toxicity, levels
National Category
Biological Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30099 (URN)978-91-7668-959-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-10-04, Hörsalen, Billbergska huset, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-08-01 Created: 2013-08-01 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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