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Characterisation and Utilisation of Steering Feel in Heavy Trucks
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Steering is next to braking the most important control feature of a road vehicle. The driver gives input through the steering wheel and the vehicle reacts in a certain way, which results in a transfer function between input and output. The transfer function can be modified by means of an actuator in the steering system to improve safety, handling and steering feel. To be able to use active steering systems to improve the steering feel, we need to understand how steering feel comes about. There have been several investigations to find out how drivers experience a change in vehicle steering and handling behaviour and how a change in vehicle handling behaviour affects the driver. However, as yet, there is no standardised way to find mutual corresponding measurements, assessments and ratings, nor is there a consistent definition of steering feel. An important part of investigating steering feel concerns how to measure what drivers feel. One of the essential prerequisites in the present research work is that steering feel, as perceived by human beings, can be allotted in dimensions. To define this non-instrumental space, a method to find the dimensions that people use to perceive and describe steering feel has been developed. It is shown that it is possible to extract up to nine dimensions describing the steering feel of road vehicles. This was experimentally evaluated using a driving simulator. In the test, drivers assessed truck steering system settings that differed in friction, damping, inertia and stiffness, due to five dimensions of steering feel. The same steering system settings were also tested in accordance with ISO standards for vehicle handling to acquire characteristic instrumental quantities. The instrumental measurements and the non-instrumental assessments were then analysed with respect to their correlation with each other. The results show that there are indeed correlations and also which of the handling quantities influence which dimension of steering feel.One possible use of the increased knowledge of steering feel evaluation is to influence the driver's behaviour by a directed change of steering feel. In a track test the steering wheel torque of a truck was modified depending on the lateral dynamic vehicle driving state. During the experiment the cornering behaviour of truck drivers was evaluated regarding lateral acceleration, which is related to rollover accidents. Statistical evaluation showed a decrease of maximum lateral acceleration values while cornering when the steering wheel torque was decreased at high lateral acceleration. There are also more possibilities to modify the transfer function between driver input and vehicle response. Artificial understeering and yaw rate gain acceleration are two functionalities that were developed during this work and were evaluated by simulation. Thus, based on the knowledge about steering feel, an application-oriented hypothesis could be formulated and evaluated. The fundamental part of this thesis contributed a puzzle piece to the mapping of steering feel while the advanced part established ties to future applications with active and semi-active steering as well as driver assistance systems.

Abstract [sv]

Styrning är tillsammans med bromsarna de viktigaste kontrollelementen i ett vägfordon. Föraren ger input via ratten och fordonet reagerar på ett visst sätt. Det kan sammanfattas till en överföringsfunktion mellan input och fordonsrespons. Överföringsfunktionen kan modifieras med en aktuator i styrsystemet för att förbättra säkerhet, handlingegenskaper och styrkänsla. För att kunna använda aktiv styrning för att förbättra styrkänslan, behöver vi förstå hur styrkänsla uppstår. Det finns många undersökningar om hur förare upplever en förändring i fordonets styrsystem eller handlingegenskaper och hur de ändringarna påverkar föraren. Men än så länge finns det inte en enhetlig definition av, eller något standardiserat sätt, för att detektera, mäta, beskriva och bedöma styrkänsla. En viktig del inom forskningen om styrkänsla handlar om hur man mäter vad föraren upplever. Ett av de essentiella antagandena i det här arbetet är att man kan dela in styrkänsla i flera dimensioner. Därför har en metod utvecklats för att definiera detta icke-instrumentella rum och detektera de dimensioner som förarna använder för att uppleva och beskriva styrkänsla. I avhandlingen visas att det är möjligt att extrahera upp till nio dimensioner som beskriver styrkänsla hos vägfordon. Dimensionerna utvärderades också experimentellt i en körsimulator. I experimentet beskrev förarna med hjälp av de definierade dimensionerna styrkänslan hos fordon som karakteriserades av olika styrsysteminställningar. Samma inställningar utvärderades enligt ISO standarder för fordonshandling för att få fram objektiva instrumentella mätvärden. De instrumentella och icke-instrumentella beskrivningarna analyserades med avseende på statistiska samband. Resultaten visar att det finns samband och vilka handlingvärden som påverkar vilken dimension av styrkänsla. En möjlig användning av kunskapen kring styrkänsla är att kunna påverka förarens körbeteende genom att modifiera styrkänslan. I ett experiment modifierades rattmomentet i en tung lastbil som funktion av sidaccelerationen. Under experimentet uppmättes förarnas kurvtagningsbeteende för en riskbedömning angående vältning. Den statistiska utvärderingen visade att topparna i sidacceleration kapades när rattmomentet minskades vid hög sidacceleration. Det finns många möjligheter att modifiera överföringsfunktionen mellan förarens input och fordonets respons. Artificiell understyrning och girvinkelacceleration är två funktioner som utvecklades och utvärderades inom detta arbete. Baserad på den utökade kunskapen om styrkänsla kunde en användningsorienterad hypotes formuleras och utvärderas. Den grundläggande delen av avhandlingen ger ett bidrag till kartläggningen av hur styrkänsla kan beskrivas och den tillämpade delen etablerar anknytningar till framtida fordonsapplikationer med aktiva och semi-aktiva styrsystem och förarassistanssystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , 106 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2013:21
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122305OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-122305DiVA: diva2:621931
Public defence
2013-06-11, D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130524

Available from: 2013-05-24 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2013-05-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On the correlation between steering feel and handling in heavy trucks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the correlation between steering feel and handling in heavy trucks
2008 (English)In: FISITA World Automotive Congress 2008, Congress Proceedings - Mobility Concepts, Man Machine Interface, Process Challenges, Virtual Reality: Volume 1, 2008, 311-317 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Driving a car gives us a certain feeling. Driving another car returns a very differentexperience. If we could drive with closed eyes, we could nonetheless explain which vehicle itwas we were sitting in. Not only are there differences between sports cars and transporters orlimousines and trucks, but also it is possible to feel the different sensations from drivingtrucks of different manufacturers. It depends on the seat, the sitting position, the view, thesound, the performance, the brakes - and the steering feel.There are many ways how to describe a vehicle's steering feel. There are ISO-standards, suchas ISO/TS 20119 and ISO 14792 that generate characteristic values, there are subjective testsof automotive magazines, and there are opinions of test and race drivers. But exactly there,between the pure objective tests and the subjective impressions that are difficult to describe,exists a gap. This relationship between instrumentally measured numbers and nearlyindescribable feelings has not been fully investigated yet. With a better understanding of thecorrelation between objective values and subjective experience, it may be possible to find ananswer on which parameters can manipulate the feelings.This paper is on an investigation about finding a correlation between instrumental values(values measured by instruments or calculated from those) and non-instrumental values(values obtained by human impressions). The idea is to use drivers as human measuringgauges and let them measure impressions in their own words.Thus, in order to gather a standardized answer that can be evaluated, a questionnaire wasdeveloped. For this questionnaire the most important consideration was to facilitate the testdrivers with their own languages. Therefore, the questions were developed in the test drivers'native language. The characteristic words were chosen corresponding to the results of adouble interrogation process.When people express their feelings like they are accustomed to do, they will utilize a libraryof expressive words instead of numbers. Thus the measuring results will have that character,too. By using the semantic differential method, expressions can be translated into numbers.The semantic differential method is a well-known method especially in psychoacousticswhich allows people describe how noise sounds to them. With this kind of evaluation - valueassigning procedure - a list of parameters comes to existence similar to that containing theinstrumental values. To explore the relation between the instrumental and non-instrumentalvalues, statistical methods are used.

Keyword
Heavy Truck, Steering Feel, Semantic Differential, Correlation, Field Test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25036 (URN)2-s2.0-84866073342 (Scopus ID)
Conference
32nd FISITA World Automotive Congress 2008; Munich; Germany; 14-19 September 2008
Note

QC 20141013

Available from: 2010-10-06 Created: 2010-10-06 Last updated: 2014-10-13Bibliographically approved
2. On a Method for Generating a Word Pool for the Description of Steering Feel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On a Method for Generating a Word Pool for the Description of Steering Feel
2010 (English)In: AVEC 10 - Proceedings, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

“If touching is not a single perception but a plural, then its objects are a plurality, too.” (Aristotle)

For investigating steering feel, a very important part is how to measure what people feel. The hypothesis in the present research work is that steering feel, as perceived by human beings, can be allotted in dimensions. The steering feel of a certain vehicle can then be seen as a point in a space with multiple orthogonal dimensions. The aim is to find the dimensions that people use to perceive and describe steering feel, in order to define this non-instrumental space. This article describes two modes of evaluation, a manual mode anda mathematical mode using the statistical method of multidimensional scaling. Applying these modes, it has been possible to extract nine dimensions describing the steering feel of road vehicles.

Keyword
Driver Model, Driver-Vehicle System, Steering System, Vehicle Dynamics
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26093 (URN)978-0-904947-65-6 (ISBN)
Conference
10th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control,Aug 22, 2010 - Aug 25, 2010, Loughborough, UK
Note

QC 20101220

Available from: 2010-11-12 Created: 2010-11-12 Last updated: 2014-11-17Bibliographically approved
3. A method to find correlations between steering feel and vehicle handling properties using a moving base driving simulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method to find correlations between steering feel and vehicle handling properties using a moving base driving simulator
2011 (English)In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 49, no 12, 1837-1854 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There have been several investigations to find out how drivers experience a change in vehicle-handling behaviour. However, the hypothesis that there is a correlation between what the driver perceives and vehicle-handling properties remains to be verified. To define what people feel, the human feeling of steering systems was divided into dimensions of perception. Then 28 test drivers rated different steering system characteristics of a semi-trailer tractor combination in a moving base-driving simulator. Characteristics of the steering system differed in friction, damping, inertia and stiffness. The same steering system characteristics were also tested in accordance with international standards of vehicle-handling tests resulting in characteristic quantities. The instrumental measurements and the non-instrumental ratings were analysed with respect to correlation between each other with the help of regression analysis and neural networks. Results show that there are correlations between measurements and ratings. Moreover, it is shown that which one of the handling variables influence the different dimensions of the steering feel.

Keyword
steering feel, vehicle handling, vehicle dynamics, heavy truck, moving base driving simulator
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27706 (URN)10.1080/00423114.2010.545132 (DOI)000299562200003 ()2-s2.0-80053524699 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note
QC 20120412Available from: 2010-12-20 Created: 2010-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Finding correlation between handling values and the drivers’ performance using a moving base driving simulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finding correlation between handling values and the drivers’ performance using a moving base driving simulator
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 22st International Symposium: Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work presents the evaluation of an experiment on the relationship between driver performance and vehicle handling quantities. Both of them are instrumental quantities, however, the former are driver dependent, the latter are only vehicle dependent. A moving base driving simulator was used to examine 16 truck-trailer-combinations. The driving of 28 test drivers in a special developed manoeuvre resulted in characteristic driver performance values evaluated of vehicle system quantities measured while driving. Stationary and dynamical ISO-handling tests resulted in handling quantities. The correlation by means of regression analysis between these driver performance values and the quantities of the ISO-handling tests are presented here as a step towards the mapping of steering feel.

National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-84239 (URN)
Conference
22nd International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, 14-19 August, Manchester, UK
Note

QC 20120213

Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2014-11-17Bibliographically approved
5. Finding correlation between steering feel assessments and the driver’s performance using a moving base driving simulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finding correlation between steering feel assessments and the driver’s performance using a moving base driving simulator
2011 (English)In: FAST-zero’11, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is not yet a standardised method to find mutual corresponding subjective and objective measurements. This paper describes how non-instrumental measurements (made by human measurement gauges) and instrumental measurements (made by measuring instruments) can be distinguished in quantities that are dependent of the vehicle, the driver's skills or the driver's individual preferences. Moreover, this paper shows the correlation between instrumental and non-instrumental measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011
Keyword
Human-Machine-Interface, Steering Feel, Subjective-objective
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-84245 (URN)
Conference
First International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology toward zero-traffic-accident, September 5-9, Tokyo, JAPAN
Note

QC 20120215

Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2014-11-17Bibliographically approved
6. Influencing driver chosen cornering speed by means of modified steering feel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influencing driver chosen cornering speed by means of modified steering feel
2014 (English)In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 52, no 4, 522-538 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an investigation about influencing the driver's behaviour intuitively by means of modified steering feel. For a rollover indication through haptic feedback a model was developed and tested that returned a warning to the driver about too high vehicle speed. This was realised by modifying the experienced steering wheel torque as a function of the lateral acceleration. The hypothesis for this work was that drivers of heavy vehicles will perform with more margin of safety to the rollover threshold if the steering feel is altered by means of decreased or additionally increased steering wheel torque at high lateral acceleration. Therefore, the model was implemented in a test truck with active steering with torque overlay and used for a track test. Thirty-three drivers took part in the investigation that showed, depending on the parameter setting, a significant decrease of lateral acceleration while cornering.

Keyword
driver behaviour, driving tests, heavy truck, rollover, steering feel, steering feel modification
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122301 (URN)10.1080/00423114.2013.841964 (DOI)000335849600006 ()2-s2.0-84900499975 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140625. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2013-05-17 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
7. Artificial understeer by means of active steering: an investigation of proper handling test methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artificial understeer by means of active steering: an investigation of proper handling test methods
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper shows for a heavy truck simulation model the advantages of an artificial understeering functionality realised by a PID controlled active front steering system based on linear calculated yaw rate error. The yaw rate error results from the difference between measured vehicle yaw rate and a linear calculated yaw rate based on steering wheel angle and vehicle speed. The integrated controlled system shows increased performances: The more linear-like behaviour together with a higher understeer gradient over a wide lateral acceleration range which increases safety especially in emergency conditions.

National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-122302 (URN)
Conference
International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicle on Roads and Tracks
Note

QC 20130524

Available from: 2013-05-17 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2016-11-25Bibliographically approved

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  • apa
  • ieee
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