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Quantitative evaluation of the surface finish of high gloss polished tool steels
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9084-819X
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8058-1252
2013 (English)In: Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 2013: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, June 17-21, 2013, 2013, p. 207-218Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Standardised procedures to measure and estimate surface qualities of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components do not exist. Instead, steel producers as well as polishers and mould-users need to rely on master plaques for tactile comparisons and/or their own visual estimations for surface quality controls.

This paper presents an overview of various surface evaluation methods of steels, including existing standards and available surface metrology. A new method to evaluate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces, based on a 3D non-contacting measurement technique, is presented. The suggested method is based on defect extraction, and should be useful for both specifications and quality controls. Included defects were found to be quality criteria for polished tool steel surfaces. The surface acceptance levels and defect classification are based on interviews and questionnaires, as well as literature studies and visual estimations of test samples made by experienced polishers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. p. 207-218
Keywords [en]
tool steel, surface analysis, characterisation, high gloss, defects
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-22171OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-22171DiVA, id: diva2:621842
Conference
The 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Taipei, Taiwan, June 17-21, 2013
Available from: 2013-05-17 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2015-03-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On Polishability of Tool Steels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Polishability of Tool Steels
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the world’s fastest growing industries is the plastic industry. Today’s ever increasing demands of high quality products, shorter lead times and reduced costs push development and research forwards. Moulds for plastic injection moulding need to have a functional surface to meet demands on demoulding and wear properties, but also to produce the required final surface quality, which for ‘standard mould qualities’ of high gloss applications means nearly defect free, shiny and smooth mould surfaces with roughness levels in the nm-range.

The aim of this thesis was to develop a metrology framework to quantitatively characterise these mould surfaces in order to gain better understanding of which defect structures are critical at injection moulding, and how these are correlated to material properties and operating conditions in surface preparation of tool steels. In practice this means to capture surface features of some few nm in height/depth up to some hundreds of microns in lateral dimension within insert areas of cm2 and larger. Experiments combining polishers’ experience with steel producers’ as well as non-contact areal texture examinations of surface topography were performed to overcome and link practical skills to academic ones.

Based on areal surface metrology, defect classification and image analysis based surface characterisation, an evaluation procedure for polished tool steel surfaces was developed, initially tested and verified. The suggested method involves descriptions of relevant defect structures and acceptance levels for high gloss polished tool steels in the form of numerical parameter values based on interferometric measurements. It was also concluded that the cleanness of the steels was less important as long as it was kept within reasonable levels; the surface preparation strategy is a major factor influencing the mould surface quality e.g. it was found that a ‘several-step-strategy’ was favourable to avoid defect structures; not all ‘mirror-like’ mould surfaces had desirable topographies for injection moulding, therefore a well-defined mould surface assessment with numerical values describing mould surface quality is necessary to secure effective mould surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology, 2013. p. 50
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny Serie, ISSN 0346-718X ; 3509
Keywords
tool steels, polishability, surface characterisation, surface texture parameters, high gloss polishing, injection moulding
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-22175 (URN)978-91-7385-828-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-05, Virtual development laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Includes pamphlet in Appendix I.

Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2015-01-26Bibliographically approved

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