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Lrig2-deficient mice are protected against PDGFB-induced glioma
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, e73635- p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins constitute an integral membrane protein family that has three members: LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3. LRIG1 negatively regulates growth factor signaling, but little is known regarding the functions of LRIG2 and LRIG3. In oligodendroglial brain tumors, high expression of LRIG2 correlates with poor patient survival. Lrig1 and Lrig3 knockout mice are viable, but there have been no reports on Lrig2-deficient mice to date. Methodology/Principal Findings: Lrig2-deficient mice were generated by the ablation of Lrig2 exon 12 (Lrig2E12). The Lrig2E12-/- mice showed a transiently reduced growth rate and an increased spontaneous mortality rate; 20-25% of these mice died before 130 days of age, with the majority of the deaths occurring before 50 days. Ntv-a transgenic mice with different Lrig2 genotypes were transduced by intracranial injection with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-encoding replication-competent avian retrovirus (RCAS)-producing DF-1 cells. All injected Lrig2E12+/+ mice developed Lrig2 expressing oligodendroglial brain tumors of lower grade (82%) or glioblastoma-like tumors of higher grade (18%). Lrig2E12-/- mice, in contrast, only developed lower grade tumors (77%) or had no detectable tumors (23%). Lrig2E12-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) showed altered induction-kinetics of immediate-early genes Fos and Egr2 in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. However, Lrig2E12-/- MEFs showed no changes in Pdgfr alpha or Pdgfr beta levels or in levels of PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Pdgfr alpha, Pdgfr beta, Akt, or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Overexpression of LRIG1, but not of LRIG2, downregulated PDGFR alpha levels in HEK-293T cells. Conclusions: The phenotype of Lrig2E12-/- mice showed that Lrig2 was a promoter of PDGFB-induced glioma, and Lrig2 appeared to have important molecular and developmental functions that were distinct from those of Lrig1 and Lrig3.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 8, no 9, e73635- p.
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-71044DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073635ISI: 000324515600112OAI: diva2:621754

Included in thesis in manuscript form

Available from: 2013-05-17 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2014-04-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The expression and molecular functions of LRIG proteins in cancer and psoriasis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The expression and molecular functions of LRIG proteins in cancer and psoriasis
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Uttryck och molekylära funktioner av LRIG proteiner i cancer och psoriasis
Abstract [en]

The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) family consists of three integral membrane proteins that are important in human cancer. LRIG1 is a negative regulator of growth factor signaling. Its expression is associated with longer survival in several cancer types, and the gene has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor. The roles of LRIG2 and LRIG3 are less well known. The aim of this thesis was to improve our understanding of the expression and function of the LRIG protein family in psoriasis and cancer.

To investigate their expression in psoriasis, the mRNA levels and subcellular localization of the LRIG proteins were analyzed and compared between normal and psoriatic human skin. There were no differences in the LRIG mRNA levels between psoriatic and normal skin samples. However, the subcellular localization of all three LRIG proteins differed between psoriatic and normal skin.

To study the physiological and molecular functions of Lrig2, we generated Lrig2E12-/- mice. These mice were viable and born at a Mendelian rate, but Lrig2E12-/- mice had an increased rate of spontaneous mortality and a transient reduction in growth rate compared to Lrig2 wild-type (wt) mice. In an orthotopic platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)B-driven brain tumor mouse model, we studied the effect of Lrig2 on gliomagenesis. All Lrig2 wt mice developed tumors; 82% developed grade II/III tumors, and 18% developed grade IV tumors. Only 77% of the Lrig2E12-/- mice developed tumors, and they were all grade II/III tumors. Thus, Lrig2 increased the incidence and malignancy rates of PDGFB-driven gliomas. We then analyzed the effect of Lrig2 on Pdgf receptor (Pdgfr) signaling. Lrig2 had no effect on Pdgfr steady-state levels, the starvation-induced up-regulation of Pdgfrs, the phosphorylation of Pdgfrs, primary cilium formation or the PDGFBB-induced phosphorylation of Akt or Erk1/2. However, the kinetics of induction of the immediate-early genes Fos and Egr2 were altered, resulting in a more rapid induction in Lrig2E12-/- cells.

We then analyzed the clinical and biological importance of LRIG1 in lung cancer. In a human lung cancer tissue micro-array (TMA), LRIG1 expression was found to be an independent positive prognostic factor for adenocarcinoma. To study the importance of Lrig1 regarding lung cancer development in vivo, we used an inducible EGFRL858R-driven mouse lung cancer model. The mice developed diffuse lung adenocarcinoma, and the tumor burden was greater in Lrig1-/- mice than in Lrig1+/+ mice (p = 0.025) at 60 days. The human lung cancer cell line H1975, with either normal or Tet-induced expression of LRIG1, was injected into the flanks of Balb/cA nude mice. Tumors formed by LRIG1-overexpressing cells were smaller than those formed by parental cells, further indicating that LRIG1 is important during lung tumor formation or growth. In vitro, LRIG1 suppressed the proliferation of H1975 cells and down-regulated the phosphorylation of MET and RET.

To investigate the molecular functions of LRIG proteins further, we performed a yeast two-hybrid (YTH) screen using a peptide from the cytosolic tail of LRIG3 as bait. This screen identified LMO7 and LIMCH1 as prominent interaction partners for LRIG3. Proximity ligation assays showed that LMO7 interacted with all of the LRIG proteins at endogenous expression levels. LMO7 and LIMCH1 were expressed in all human tissues analyzed. Their expression was dramatically decreased in lung cancer compared to normal lung tissue. The expression of LMO7 was analyzed in a human lung cancer TMA. LMO7 was expressed in respiratory epithelial cells in normal lungs. However, LMO7 was only expressed in a quarter of the lung tumors. LMO7 expression was found to be an independent negative prognostic factor for lung cancer.

In summary, we found that the LRIG proteins were redistributed in psoriatic skin. In a mouse glioma model, Lrig2 promoted oligodendroglioma genesis. LRIG1 was an independent positive prognostic factor in human lung cancer. Lrig1 ablation increased the tumor size in an EGFRL858R-driven lung cancer mouse model. LRIG1 expression decreased the tumor growth of human lung cancer cells in a xenograft mouse model. LMO7 interacted with all three LRIG proteins and was an independent negative prognostic factor in human lung cancer. These data demonstrate the importance of LRIG proteins in human disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Print och Media, 2013. 80 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1582
LRIG1, LRIG2, LRIG3, LMO7 lung cancer, glioma, psoriasis
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-70324 (URN)978-91-7459-668-7 (PDF) (ISBN)978-91-7459-667-0 (Print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-06-07, Bärnstenssalen, byggnad 27, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Available from: 2013-05-17 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2013-05-17Bibliographically approved

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