The expression and molecular functions of LRIG proteins in cancer and psoriasis
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Uttryck och molekylära funktioner av LRIG proteiner i cancer och psoriasis (Swedish)
The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) family consists of three integral membrane proteins that are important in human cancer. LRIG1 is a negative regulator of growth factor signaling. Its expression is associated with longer survival in several cancer types, and the gene has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor. The roles of LRIG2 and LRIG3 are less well known. The aim of this thesis was to improve our understanding of the expression and function of the LRIG protein family in psoriasis and cancer.
To investigate their expression in psoriasis, the mRNA levels and subcellular localization of the LRIG proteins were analyzed and compared between normal and psoriatic human skin. There were no differences in the LRIG mRNA levels between psoriatic and normal skin samples. However, the subcellular localization of all three LRIG proteins differed between psoriatic and normal skin.
To study the physiological and molecular functions of Lrig2, we generated Lrig2E12-/- mice. These mice were viable and born at a Mendelian rate, but Lrig2E12-/- mice had an increased rate of spontaneous mortality and a transient reduction in growth rate compared to Lrig2 wild-type (wt) mice. In an orthotopic platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)B-driven brain tumor mouse model, we studied the effect of Lrig2 on gliomagenesis. All Lrig2 wt mice developed tumors; 82% developed grade II/III tumors, and 18% developed grade IV tumors. Only 77% of the Lrig2E12-/- mice developed tumors, and they were all grade II/III tumors. Thus, Lrig2 increased the incidence and malignancy rates of PDGFB-driven gliomas. We then analyzed the effect of Lrig2 on Pdgf receptor (Pdgfr) signaling. Lrig2 had no effect on Pdgfr steady-state levels, the starvation-induced up-regulation of Pdgfrs, the phosphorylation of Pdgfrs, primary cilium formation or the PDGFBB-induced phosphorylation of Akt or Erk1/2. However, the kinetics of induction of the immediate-early genes Fos and Egr2 were altered, resulting in a more rapid induction in Lrig2E12-/- cells.
We then analyzed the clinical and biological importance of LRIG1 in lung cancer. In a human lung cancer tissue micro-array (TMA), LRIG1 expression was found to be an independent positive prognostic factor for adenocarcinoma. To study the importance of Lrig1 regarding lung cancer development in vivo, we used an inducible EGFRL858R-driven mouse lung cancer model. The mice developed diffuse lung adenocarcinoma, and the tumor burden was greater in Lrig1-/- mice than in Lrig1+/+ mice (p = 0.025) at 60 days. The human lung cancer cell line H1975, with either normal or Tet-induced expression of LRIG1, was injected into the flanks of Balb/cA nude mice. Tumors formed by LRIG1-overexpressing cells were smaller than those formed by parental cells, further indicating that LRIG1 is important during lung tumor formation or growth. In vitro, LRIG1 suppressed the proliferation of H1975 cells and down-regulated the phosphorylation of MET and RET.
To investigate the molecular functions of LRIG proteins further, we performed a yeast two-hybrid (YTH) screen using a peptide from the cytosolic tail of LRIG3 as bait. This screen identified LMO7 and LIMCH1 as prominent interaction partners for LRIG3. Proximity ligation assays showed that LMO7 interacted with all of the LRIG proteins at endogenous expression levels. LMO7 and LIMCH1 were expressed in all human tissues analyzed. Their expression was dramatically decreased in lung cancer compared to normal lung tissue. The expression of LMO7 was analyzed in a human lung cancer TMA. LMO7 was expressed in respiratory epithelial cells in normal lungs. However, LMO7 was only expressed in a quarter of the lung tumors. LMO7 expression was found to be an independent negative prognostic factor for lung cancer.
In summary, we found that the LRIG proteins were redistributed in psoriatic skin. In a mouse glioma model, Lrig2 promoted oligodendroglioma genesis. LRIG1 was an independent positive prognostic factor in human lung cancer. Lrig1 ablation increased the tumor size in an EGFRL858R-driven lung cancer mouse model. LRIG1 expression decreased the tumor growth of human lung cancer cells in a xenograft mouse model. LMO7 interacted with all three LRIG proteins and was an independent negative prognostic factor in human lung cancer. These data demonstrate the importance of LRIG proteins in human disease.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Print och Media , 2013. , 80 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1582
LRIG1, LRIG2, LRIG3, LMO7 lung cancer, glioma, psoriasis
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject Oncology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-70324ISBN: 978-91-7459-668-7 (PDF)ISBN: 978-91-7459-667-0 (Print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-70324DiVA: diva2:621204
2013-06-07, Bärnstenssalen, byggnad 27, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Jensen, Kim, Associate Professor
Hedman, Håkan, ForskareJohansson, Mikael, Lektor/överläkareHenriksson, Roger, Professor/överläkare
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