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Disturbed sleep and emotion: a developmental perspective
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. (CHAMP)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sleep disturbances are not only defining features, but also diagnostic criteria for most psychiatric disorders. Recently, researchers have proposed a theoretic role for sleep disturbances in emotion dysregulation, subsequently linking neurobiological processes and psychopathology. Most prior research examining the potential role for sleep disturbance in emotion dysregulation is from a neurophysiological or clinical perspective, or primarily focused on maintaining processes. Less well understood are how sleep disturbances may be involved at the levels of predisposition, precipitation, and perpetuation of emotion dysregulation concurrently and over time.

This dissertation presents findings from three studies that were designed to expand on what is known about sleep disturbance in the predisposition, precipitation, and perpetuation of emotion dysregulation. Study 1 examined the long-term relation between sleep-onset problems and neuroticism over twenty-years. Adolescent sleep-onset posed risk (predisposition) for neuroticism in midlife, not vice versa. Study 2 investigated the effects of 3-nights partial sleep deprivation (5-hours total time in bed) on the positive and negative affect and emotions of otherwise healthy adults. Following partial sleep deprivation, people reported significant reductions in positive affect and emotions compared to rested people (precipitation). The only impact on negative emotions was on the discrete level. Sleep deprived peo-ple reported significantly more irritability, loathing, hostility, and shakiness compared to controls. Study 3 measured adolescent sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and catastrophic worry. In addition to direct risk, sleep disturbances posed a non-gender specific risk for depressive symptoms one-year later through catastrophic worry (perpetuation). Overall, the results provide support for the role of sleep disturbances in the predis-position, precipitation, and perpetuation of emotion dysregulation. An implication is that sleep disturbances and catastrophic worry are two po-tentially modifiable markers of risk for emotion dysregulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2013. , p. 100
Series
Örebro Studies in Psychology, ISSN 1651-1328 ; 27
Keywords [en]
sleep disturbance, emotion dysregulation, catastrophic worry, sleep-onset, partial sleep deprivation, neuroticism, depressive symptoms
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28983ISBN: 978-91-7668-930-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-28983DiVA, id: diva2:619948
Public defence
2013-05-24, Hörsal L3, Långhuset, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

After publication of the thesis,unintended omissions of a figure and several tables were discovered. Therefore, an addendum is provided to make these materials available to the public.

Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-07 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Neuroticism and sleep-onset: what is the long-term connection?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroticism and sleep-onset: what is the long-term connection?
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2010 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 463-468Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People with sleep-onset problems often experience neuroticism. To what extent the one problem leads to the other is unknown. We used self-reported data from a Swedish longitudinal project to examine developmental links between neuroticism and sleep-onset problems. A sample of 212 people, followed from birth to midlife, was part of a cohort study spanning 37 years. Adolescent neuroticism was measured at age 16 with the High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ, Form A) and in midlife at age 37 with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Sleep-onset problems were measured at ages 15 to 17, 25, and 37 with items developed for the Solna Project. Adolescent neuroticism failed to predict sleep-onset problems. Instead, sleep-onset problems in adolescence and young adulthood predicted midlife neuroticism. We found that sleep-onset problems during adolescence were a direct risk for midlife neuroticism, as well as, an indirect risk through continuance of sleep-onset problems into adulthood. This study provides longitudinal support for adolescent sleep-onset problems as a potent risk factor for heightened neuroticism in midlife.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 2010
Keywords
Neuroticism, sleep-onset problems, adolescence, epidemiological, longitudinal, prospective
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11033 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.023 (DOI)000275079900019 ()2-s2.0-73749083217 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-06-14 Created: 2010-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on subjectice emotion experience and implicit emotion regulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of partial sleep deprivation on subjectice emotion experience and implicit emotion regulation
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Neurophysiological research implicates sleep deprivation in emotion dysregulation. Less is known about the effects of partial sleep deprivation on the emotions and on emotion regulation of otherwise healthy people. An experimental, randomized pretest-posttest study design was used to examine the differential effects of partial sleep deprivation on emotion experience and implicit emotion regulation following emotion elicitation.

Methods: We randomized 81 healthy adults (44 females) into a sleep deprivation or rested condition. Sleep deprivation was defined as 3-nights with 5-hours total time in bed. Scores on positive and negative emotion markers measured emotions. Mixed between-within subjects analyses of variance were used to examine group differences in emotion following the sleep condition and after the emotion elicitation procedures and test.

Results: Sleep deprived people reported significantly less positive emotions, and more fatigue, irritability, and hostility compared to people who were rested following the sleep condition. There were negligible differences between groups in implicit emotion regulation following emotion elicitation.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that partial sleep deprivation is a potent stressor in emotion dysregulation through reductions in positive emotions. It also appears that implicit emotion regulation works equally well following strong negative emotional events, regardless of sleep condition. From a clinical perspective, sleep deprivation and ensuing reductions in positive affect and emotion may provide clinicians with viable targets in depression treatment. Keywords: Experimental, sleep deprivation, affect, emotions, emotion regulation, emotion elicitation.

Keywords
Experimental, sleep deprivation, affect, emotions, emotion regulation, emotion elicitation
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29022 (URN)
Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
3. Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1223-1233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Depression is a common and debilitating disorder in adolescence. Sleep disturbances and depression often co-occur with sleep disturbances frequently preceding depression. The current study investigated whether catastrophic worry, a potential cognitive vulnerability, mediates the relationship between adolescent sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms, as well as whether there are gender differences in this relationship. High school students, ages 16–18, n = 1,760, 49 % girls, completed annual health surveys including reports of sleep disturbance, catastrophic worry, and depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbances predicted depressive symptoms 1-year later. Catastrophic worry partially mediated the relationship. Girls reported more sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and catastrophic worry relative to boys. The results, however, were similar regardless of gender. Sleep disturbances and catastrophic worry may provide school nurses, psychologists, teachers, and parents with non gender specific early indicators of risk for depression. Several potentially important practical implications, including suggestions for intervention and prevention programs, are highlighted. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
Keywords
Adolescence; Sleep; Depression; Catastrophizing; Worry; Gender
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29023 (URN)10.1007/s10964-012-9811-6 (DOI)000321973800009 ()22968332 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84880514938 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved

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