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Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on Human Endometrial Endothelial Cells In Vitro
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Evidence from an abundant number of studies suggests that human female reproductive functions have become impaired over the past half century and that there might be a relationship between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and reduced fertility. It is, however, not known by what mechanisms EDCs affect different reproductive functions such as endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation and placentation.

The endometrium is continuously changing its morphological and functional properties, responding to cyclic changes of oestrogen and progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle. These changes include monthly preparation for embryo implantation through changed endometrial angiogenic activity and consequent changes in endometrial vasculature.

Use of primary human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) in this work was evaluated as a possible screening tool for effects caused by EDCs on human endometrial vasculature and subsequently on various endometrial functions.

In this study HEEC and endometrial stromal cells were isolated. HEECs were grown in monocultures, and together with stromal cells in co-cultures, and exposed to endocrine active substances. These were cadmium, which has oestrogenic properties, tamoxifen, with anti-oestrogenic effects, mifepristone, which is an anti-progestin, and bisphenol A, with oestrogenic properties. The effects were evaluated by using proliferation and viability assays, migration and tube formation assays, quantitative PCR (qPCR), immunohistochemistry and western blot.

Cadmium affected the expression of angiogenesis-related genes, and caused different effects in HEECs cultured alone vs. HEECs co-cultured with stromal cells. Tamoxifen altered the expression of angiogenesis-related genes and reduced HEEC migration, thus having an anti-angiogenic effect. Mifepristone caused reduced formation of tubular structures in tube-formation assays involving HEECs co-cultured with stromal cells. Bisphenol A promoted tube formation in co-cultured HEECs which was related to changes in the expression of several angiogenesis-related genes as well as up-regulated expression of VEGF-D protein.

In conclusion, we showed that EDCs have the ability to induce changes in endometrial angiogenic activity in vitro and may thus disturb normal endometrial functions related to fertility and pregnancy. HEECs grown in vitro may provide valuable information on the effects of EDCs on human endometrial functions. However, this model is not suitable as a large-scale screening tool.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. , 70 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 902
Keyword [en]
endocrine disrupting chemicals, hormones, human endometrial endothelial cells, endometrium, estrogen, progesterone, cadmium, tamoxifen, mifepristone, bisphenol A, angiogenesis
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196730ISBN: 978-91-554-8663-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-196730DiVA: diva2:616509
Public defence
2013-06-05, Auditorium Minus, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-15 Created: 2013-03-13 Last updated: 2013-08-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Cadmium chloride alters mRNA levels of angiogenesis related genes in primary human endometrial endothelial cells grown in vitro
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cadmium chloride alters mRNA levels of angiogenesis related genes in primary human endometrial endothelial cells grown in vitro
2010 (English)In: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 30, no 3, 370-376 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cadmium, is known to cause adverse reproductive effects, and classified as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). Human endometrial endothelial cells (HEEC) have a key role in the regulation of endometrial angiogenesis. These cells are known to express estrogen receptors, a feature that makes them potential targets for EDCs such as cadmium. We have designed a co-culture system, in which HEEC were grown in the same cell culture medium as endometrial stromal cells but in separate, communicating chambers. With quantitative PCR, we investigated changes in mRNA expression of genes associated with angiogenesis, sex steroids and endothelial cell specific functions. We found that cadmium altered the mRNA expression of the two important angiogenic molecules VEGF-A and PLGF. Cadmium might thus affect endometrial angiogenesis and as a consequence cause endometrial dysfunction with an increased risk for fertility problems.

Keyword
Angiogenesis; Cadmium chloride; Endocrine disruptor; Endometrium; Co-culture; In vitro; Human endometrial endothelial cells; qPCR
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128933 (URN)10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.05.003 (DOI)000282165000004 ()20580663 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-08-03 Created: 2010-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Tamoxifen Modulates Cell Migration and Expression of Angiogenesis-Related Genes in Human Endometrial Endothelial Cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tamoxifen Modulates Cell Migration and Expression of Angiogenesis-Related Genes in Human Endometrial Endothelial Cells
Show others...
2012 (English)In: American Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0002-9440, E-ISSN 1525-2191, Vol. 180, no 6, 2527-2535 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen is used for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. The adverse effects of tamoxifen include vaginal endometrial bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, and cancer, conditions associated with angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of tamoxifen on cell migration and angiogenesis-related gene expression in human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs). The regulatory effects of tamoxifen on endometrial stromal cells and HEECs were also examined. HEECs and stromal cells were isolated and grown In monocultures or co-cultures, and incubated with 0.1 to 100 mu mol/L tamoxifen for 48 hours. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that tamoxifen decreased the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and increased the mRNA expression of VEGF receptor-1 and placental growth factor (PLGF) in HEECs. Tamoxifen's effects on VEGF-A were inhibited when HEECs were co-cultured with stromal cells. In addition, tamoxifen reduced VEGF-induced HEEC migration. The tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in and around endometrial blood vessels and by quantitative PCR in HEECs. Our data suggest that tamoxifen changes the regulation of angiogenesis in the endometrium, likely by reducing angiogenic activity. The results also indicate that endometrial stromal cells regulate some of tamoxifen's effects in HEECs, and the presence of tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes suggests tamoxifen bioactivation in the endometrial vasculature in vivo. These findings may help to elucidate the mechanism of the bleeding disturbances associated with tamoxifen treatment.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-178684 (URN)10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.02.026 (DOI)000305101300034 ()
Available from: 2012-08-02 Created: 2012-08-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Mifepristone exposure of human endometrial endothelial cells in vitro
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mifepristone exposure of human endometrial endothelial cells in vitro
2014 (English)In: Reproductive Sciences, ISSN 1933-7191, E-ISSN 1933-7205, Vol. 21, no 3, 408-414 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198025 (URN)10.1177/1933719113497284 (DOI)000331928000014 ()
Available from: 2013-04-10 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Effects of bisphenol A on human endometrial endothelial cell angiogenic activity in vitro
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of bisphenol A on human endometrial endothelial cell angiogenic activity in vitro
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-181047 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-10 Created: 2012-09-17 Last updated: 2013-05-13

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