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Networked RFID Systems for the Internet of Things
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) utilizes trillions of uniquely identifiable smart objects to connect anything at anytime and anywhere. Radio frequency identification (RFID) techniques are a powerful promising enabler for realizing the IoT. Around how to build hierarchical networked RFID systems for the IoT, this dissertation formulates and addresses problems in three key areas, i.e., communication protocols, simulation approaches, and RFID applications.

Communication protocols are essential for designing high-performance networked RFID systems. First, we propose to use time hopping pulse-position modulation (TH-PPM) impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) for the tag-to-reader link. We analyze different parts of the system delay and propose relevant strategies to shorten the delay. Second, we give the concept of code division multiple access (CDMA) UWB RFID systems. We analyze the asynchronous matched filter receiver and decorrelating receiver for multi-tag detection, and propose a new communication process that fully exploits the multiple-access capability of the two detection schemes.

Simulations are widely used to evaluate the performance of wireless networks. We propose a new approach for simulating networked RFID systems with multiple wireless standards within one case in OMNeT++. It is realized by partitioning and modeling the protocol stacks of different standards and designing a multi-radio module. Moreover, we propose a CO-Simulation framework with MATLAB and OMNeT++ (COSMO). COSMO has the ability of self-validation. It combines the strengths of MATLAB and OMNeT++ by compiling prebuilt models in MATLAB to header files and shared libraries and integrating them into OMNeT++.

RFID technology gains popularity because it can be used to track and monitor objects in real time. We implement two typical networked RFID applications, i.e., wide area RFID sensor network and item-level indoor RFID localization. We design a two-layered wide area RFID sensor network for fresh food tracking. It adopts GSM/GPRS for the communication between the server and master nodes, and semi IR-UWB for the communication between master nodes and slave nodes. We develop the control platform and implement the all-in-one sensor nodes. For indoor RFID localization, we give insights about the influence of tag interaction on tag antenna radiation pattern and localization accuracy. Two examples, i.e., the k-NN algorithm and the Simplex algorithm, are taken to show how to utilize tag interaction analysis to improve the design of localization algorithms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , xvi, 87 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 13:06
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120056ISBN: 978-91-7501-695-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-120056DiVA: diva2:613266
Public defence
2013-05-07, Sal/Hall D, Forum, ICT-KTH, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130409

Available from: 2013-04-09 Created: 2013-03-26 Last updated: 2013-04-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A low delay multiple reader passive RFID system using orthogonal TH-PPM IR-UWB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A low delay multiple reader passive RFID system using orthogonal TH-PPM IR-UWB
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2010 (English)In: Proceedings - International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, ICCCN, Zurich, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Current passive RFID systems face the challenges to locate mobile objects in real time in indoor environments, including the realization of low delay as well as effective cooperation among readers and accurate ranging ability in the physical layer. In order to overcome these challenges, this paper presents a low delay multi-reader passive RFID system using ultra high frequency (UHF) radio as the forward link from readers to tags and orthogonal time hopping pulse-position modulation (TH-PPM) impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB) over the dynamic framed slotted ALOHA algorithm as the backward link from tags to readers. The asymmetric radio links overlap parts of the forward and backward transmission and avoid reader-tag collisions. Readers cooperate via network synchronization by a server and a contention-based update strategy to acknowledge tags. An optimal system configured with 4 readers using 16 orthogonal TH sequences is suggested and operates 3 times faster than the theoretical potential of EPC Class-1 Generation-2 protocol with the listen-before-talk scheme. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zurich: , 2010
Keyword
IR-UWB, Multi-reader, Orthogonal TH-PPM, Passive RFID, Contention-based, Forward links, Indoor environment, Low delay, Mobile objects, Network synchronization, Physical layers, Real time, Slotted Aloha, Tag collision, Time-hopping, Ultra-high frequency, Ultra-wideband radio, Local area networks, Radio broadcasting, Radio links, Radio transmission, Real time systems, Broadband networks
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28764 (URN)10.1109/ICCCN.2010.5560163 (DOI)2-s2.0-77958512921 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks(ICCCN)
Note

QC 20110121. QC 20160214

Available from: 2011-01-20 Created: 2011-01-20 Last updated: 2016-02-14Bibliographically approved
2. Code division multiple access/pulse position modulation ultra-wideband radio frequency identification for Internet of Things: concept and analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Code division multiple access/pulse position modulation ultra-wideband radio frequency identification for Internet of Things: concept and analysis
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2012 (English)In: International Journal of Communication Systems, ISSN 1074-5351, E-ISSN 1099-1131, Vol. 25, no 9, 1103-1121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a compelling technology for Internet of Things (IoT). Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology is one promising wireless technique for future RFID, especially for high-throughput sensing applications. On-off keying UWB RFID system provides high pulse rate but suffers severe collisions that limit the system throughput. This paper proposes to utilize low pulse rate code division multiple access/pulse position modulation UWB in the tag-to-reader link to provide multiple tag access capability and build a high-throughput RFID system for IoT. We analyze asynchronous matched filter receiver and decorrelating receiver for multi-tag detection and design an effective medium access control scheme to optimize the network throughput. We propose an effective dynamic frame size adjustment algorithm on the basis of theoretical analysis and determine the preferable length of Gold codes. With a similar data rate, the throughput of the proposed system using the decorrelating receiver is 8.6 times higher than that of the electronic product code class 1 generation 2 system. Only using 1/10 pulse rate and 1/15 data rate, the proposed system outperforms the on-off keying UWB RFID system 1.4 times in terms of throughput.

Keyword
CDMA-PPM UWB, RFID, Internet of Things, detection scheme, medium access control, performance analysis
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103143 (URN)10.1002/dac.2312 (DOI)000308080800002 ()2-s2.0-84865621915 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20121009

Available from: 2012-10-09 Created: 2012-10-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Two-layered wireless sensor networks for warehouses and supermarkets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two-layered wireless sensor networks for warehouses and supermarkets
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2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid development of wireless sensor network and RFID technologies offers a wide range of novel applications and services. In this paper, we present a two-layered wireless network for warehouses and supermarkets to monitor goods storage and sale, and assist for quality management and market analysis. The hierarchical architecture uses IEEE 802.15.4a impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB) communication protocol between slave sensor nodes and master sensor nodes, and IEEE 802.11b/g between master sensor nodes and server. The performance of our proposal is evaluated based on the widely used OMNeT++ simulation environment. Simulation results are presented and discussed according to different sampling rates and traffic loads for specific scenarios requirements. © 2009 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sliema: , 2009
Keyword
IEEE 802.11b/g, IEEE 802.15.4a, OMNeT++, RFID, Two-layered wireless sensor network, Communication protocols, Hierarchical architectures, Market analysis, Novel applications, Rapid development, RFID Technology, Sampling rates, Simulation environment, Simulation result, Traffic loads, Ultra-wideband radio, Communication, Network architecture, Quality control, Quality management, Retail stores, Sensor networks, Sensor nodes, Standards, Telecommunication equipment, Telecommunication systems, Ubiquitous computing, Ultra-wideband (UWB), Warehouses, Wireless sensor networks
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28767 (URN)10.1109/UBICOMM.2009.16 (DOI)2-s2.0-77951465132 (Scopus ID)9780769538341 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services, and Technologies, UBICOMM 2009
Note
QC 20110121Available from: 2011-01-20 Created: 2011-01-20 Last updated: 2013-04-09Bibliographically approved
4. COSMO: CO-simulation with MATLAB and OMNeT++ for indoor wireless networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>COSMO: CO-simulation with MATLAB and OMNeT++ for indoor wireless networks
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2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE GLOBECOM 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Simulations are widely used to design and evaluate new protocols and applications of indoor wireless networks. However, the available network simulation tools face the challenges of providing accurate indoor channel models, three-dimensional (3-D) models, model portability, and effective validation. In order to overcome these challenges, this paper presents a new CO-Simulation framework based on MATLAB and OMNeT++ (COSMO) to rapidly build credible simulations for indoor wireless networks. A hierarchical ad hoc passive RFID network for indoor tag locating is described as a case study, demonstrating the significance and efficiency of COSMO compared with other network simulators. COSMO surpasses other network simulators in terms of workload and validity.

Series
IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Globecom), ISSN 1930-529X
Keyword
co-simulation, indoor wireless networks, indoor channel model, passive RFID
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28771 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOM.2010.5683583 (DOI)000287977402123 ()2-s2.0-79551619442 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5638-3 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2010), Miami, FL, DEC 06-10, 2010
Note

QC 20110121

Available from: 2011-01-21 Created: 2011-01-20 Last updated: 2016-05-02Bibliographically approved
5. Wireless sensor networks for logistics and retail
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless sensor networks for logistics and retail
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2009 (English)In: INSS2009 - 6th International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems, Pittsburgh, PA, 2009, 98-101 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Internet of Things technologies makes it possible to trace when and where the excellent food or wine is spoiled or loses perfect taste in logistics and retail. This paper describes a system using a two-layered wireless sensor network to monitor the supply chain from manufacturer to consumer, including the network topology, application software on server, and sensor node hardware. It employs GSM/GPRS as the high layer network and semi impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB) for the low layer communication. We propose GSM Cell-ID location technology for tracking the goods transportation, and time-of-arrival method for local positioning. Finally, the first version of the system implementation and future work are presented. ©2009 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pittsburgh, PA: , 2009
Keyword
Cell-id positioning, GSM/GPRS, Internet of things, Semi ir-uwb, Two-layered wireless sensor network, Application softwares, Cell-ID, Cell-ID location, Goods transportation, Layer networks, Local positioning, Network topology, System implementation, Time-of-arrival, Ultra-wideband radio, Electric network topology, Internet, Sensor networks, Sensor nodes, Supply chains, Telecommunication equipment, Telecommunication systems, Ultra-wideband (UWB), Wine, Wireless sensor networks
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28768 (URN)10.1109/INSS.2009.5409943 (DOI)2-s2.0-77950170315 (Scopus ID)9781424463145 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20110121Available from: 2011-01-20 Created: 2011-01-20 Last updated: 2013-04-09Bibliographically approved
6. Item-Level Indoor Localization With Passive UHF RFID Based on Tag Interaction Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Item-Level Indoor Localization With Passive UHF RFID Based on Tag Interaction Analysis
Show others...
2013 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 61, no 4, 2122-2135 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) with a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is a low-cost and low-complexity approach for item-level indoor localization. Although RSSI-based algorithms suffer from multipath effect and other environmental factors, reference tags and RSSI changes can be utilized to further improve the localization accuracy. However, the current algorithms lack deep analysis of the influence of tag interaction on localization accuracy and faces the challenge of simultaneously locating multiple close targets. In this paper, we propose an analysis method about how tag interaction affects a tag antenna radiation pattern and an RSSI change. The tag interaction analysis guides us to improve the design of RSSI-based localization algorithms. We take the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) algorithm and the Simplex algorithm as two examples. The experimental results show that the revised k-NN and the revised Simplex algorithms are robust to different numbers, spacing, and materials of target objects, and they are superior to other RFID localization schemes, considering cost, capability of simultaneous localization of multiple targets, and location estimation errors.

Keyword
Item-level indoor localization, passive ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), received signal strength indicator (RSSI), RSSI variance, tag interaction analysis
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120055 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2013.2264785 (DOI)000326245900044 ()2-s2.0-8488730570 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20131024. Updated from Accepted to Published.

Available from: 2013-03-26 Created: 2013-03-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • asciidoc
  • rtf