Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Residual beta cell function at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents varies with gender and season
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Sweden.
Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Sweden.
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: Diabetes/Metabolism Research Reviews, ISSN 1520-7552, E-ISSN 1520-7560, Vol. 29, no 1, 85-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


There are seasonal variations and gender differences in incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D), metabolic control and responses to immune interventions at onset of the disease.

We hypothesized that there are seasonal and gender differences in residual insulin secretion already at diagnosis of T1D.


In 2005, a national study, the Better Diabetes Diagnosis, was started to classify all newly diagnosed children and adolescents with diabetes. About 95% (3824/4017) of the patients were classified as T1D, and our analyses are based on the patients with T1D.


C-peptide was lower in younger children, 0–10 years of age (0.23 ± 0.20 nmol/L) than in older children, 11–18 years of age (0.34 ± 0.28 nmol/L) (p  < 0.000 ). There was a seasonal variation in non-fasting serum C-peptide, significantly correlated to the seasonal variation of diagnosis (p < 0.01). Most children were diagnosed in January, February and March as well as in October when C-peptide was highest, whereas fewer patients were diagnosed in April and May when serum C-peptide was significantly lower (p < 0.01). The seasonal variation of C-peptide was more pronounced in boys than in girls (p < 0.000 and p < 0.01, respectively). Girls had higher C-peptide than boys (p < 0.05), especially in early puberty.


Both seasonal and gender differences in residual beta cell function exist already at diagnosis of T1D. These observations have consequences for treatment and for randomizing patients in immune intervention clinical trials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons , 2013. Vol. 29, no 1, 85-89 p.
Keyword [en]
C-peptide, children, type 1 diabetes, seasonal variation, gender, immune intervention
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90084DOI: 10.1002/dmrr.2365ISI: 000313546000013OAI: diva2:612411

Funding Agencies|Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation (Barndiabetesfonden)||

Available from: 2013-04-10 Created: 2013-03-19 Last updated: 2013-04-10Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(447 kB)210 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 447 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Samuelsson, UlfLudvigsson, Johnny
By organisation
PediatricsFaculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Paediatrics in Linköping
In the same journal
Diabetes/Metabolism Research Reviews
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 210 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 160 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link