4. Air pollution and damages to cultural heritage in cities: The decay of the cultural heritage in Krakow
2003 (English)In: Urban Environmental Management: Reports from the Superbs project / [ed] Lars Rydén, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1, 42-53 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Air pollution is both detrimental for human health and cause corrosion and other deterioration of materials. A detailed study of the effects of air pollution on the stone cultural monuments in Krakow showed the damages to be far reaching and serious. Krakow is badly hit by air pollution both due to an extensive use of coal for combustion in individual homes and power plants, as well as its unfavourable geographical situation. The sculptures studied were made of Libaiz dolomite, Upper Jurassic limestone, Pinczow limestone and Carpathian flysch sandstone, used in the Wawel castle and the Church of Saints Peter and Paul. Excessive weathering was caused by wet and dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, causing formation of gypsum crystals, soot and dust, metal impurities and microbal activities. The mechanisms of pollution-caused weathering were studied by electron microscopy and chemical analysis. The destroyed or badly miscoloured sculptures, have either been replaced by copies, or restored. Costs for restoration work have so far exceeded 40 M PLN.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1. 42-53 p.
, Superbs Case Studies, 4
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Arts
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197105ISBN: 91-970017-5-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-197105DiVA: diva2:611974