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Hybrid Integration of Active Bio-signal Cable with Intelligent Electrode: Steps toward Wearable Pervasive-Healthcare Applications
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Personalized and pervasive healthcare help seamlessly integrate healthcare and wellness into people’s daily life, independent of time and space. With the developments in biomedical sensing technologies nowadays, silicon based integrated circuits have shown great advantages in terms of tiny physical size, and low power consumption. As a result, they have been found in many advanced medical applications. In the meanwhile, printed electronics is considered as a promising approach enabling cost-effective manufacturing of thin, flexible, and light-weight devices. A hybrid integration of integrated circuits and printed electronics provides a promising solution for the future wearable healthcare devices.

This thesis first reviews the current approaches for bio-electric signal sensing and the state-of-the-art designs for biomedical circuit and systems. In the second part, the idea of Intelligent Electrode and Active Cable for wearable ECG monitoring systems is proposed. Based on this concept, we design and fabricate two customized IC chips to provide a single cable solution for long-term healthcare monitoring. The first chip is a digital ASIC with a serial communication protocol implemented on chip to support data and command packets transmission between different ASIC chips. Also, it has on-chip memory to buffer the digital bio-signal. An Intelligent Electrode is formed by embedding the ASIC chip into the conductive electrode. With the on-chip integrated communication protocol, a wired sensor network can be established enabling the single cable solution. The ASIC’s controlling logic is capable of making dynamic network management, thus endows the electrode with local intelligence. The second chip is a fully integrated mixed-signal SoC. In addition to the digital controller implemented and verified in the first chip, another 2 key modules are integrated: a tunable analog front end circuits, and a 6-input SAR ADC. The second chip works as a networked SoC sensor. The command-based network management is verified through functional tests using the fabricated SoCs. With the programmable analog front end circuits, the SoC sensor can be configured to detect a variety of bio-electric signals. EOG, EMG, ECG, and EEG signals are successfully recorded through in-vivo tests.

This research also explores the potential of using high accurate inkjet printing technology as an inexpensive integration method and enabling technology to design and fabricate bio-sensing devices. Performance evaluation of printed electrodes and interconnections on flexible substrates is made to examine the feasibility of applying them in the fabrication of Bio-Patch. The reliability of the inkjet printed sliver traces is evaluated via static bending tests. The measurement results prove that the printed silver lines can offer a reliable interconnection. In-vivo test results show that the quality of ECG signal sensed by the printed electrodes is comparable with the one gained by commercial electrodes.

Finally, two Bio-Patch prototypes are presented: one is based on photo paper substrate, the other on polyimide substrate. These two prototypes are implemented by heterogeneous integration of the silicon based SoC sensor with cost-effective printed electronics onto the flexible substrates. The measurement results indicate the SoC operates smoothly with the printed electronics. Clean ECG signal is successfully recorded from both of the implemented Bio-Patch prototypes. This versatile SoC sensor can be used in various applications according to specific requirements. And this heterogeneous system combining high-level integrated SoC technology and inkjet printing technique provides a promising solution for future personalized and pervasive healthcare applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , xiii, 60 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119280ISBN: 978-91-7501-670-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-119280DiVA: diva2:610512
Public defence
2013-04-16, Sal-E, Forum 120, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130318

Available from: 2013-04-19 Created: 2013-03-11 Last updated: 2013-04-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Bio-Patch Design and Implementation Based on a Low-Power System-on-Chip and Paper-Based Inkjet Printing Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-Patch Design and Implementation Based on a Low-Power System-on-Chip and Paper-Based Inkjet Printing Technology
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2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on information technology in biomedicine, ISSN 1089-7771, E-ISSN 1558-0032, Vol. 16, no 6, 1043-1050 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the prototype implementation of a Bio-Patch using fully integrated low-power System-on-Chip (SoC) sensor and paper-based inkjet printing technology. The SoC sensor is featured with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate a variety of bio-signals. It is fabricated in a 0.18-µm standard CMOS technology, with a total power consumption of 20 µW from a 1.2 V supply. Both the electrodes and interconnections are implemented by printing conductive nano-particle inks on a flexible photo paper substrate using inkjet printing technology. A Bio-Patch prototype is developed by integrating the SoC sensor, a soft battery, printed electrodes and interconnections on a photo paper substrate. The Bio-Patch can work alone or operate along with other patches to establish a wired network for synchronous multiple-channel bio-signals recording. The measurement results show that electrocardiogram and electromyogram are successfully measured in in-vivo tests using the implemented Bio-Patch prototype.

Keyword
Bio-electric SoC, Sensor IC, Bio-Patch, electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), paper-based inkjet printing technology
National Category
Medical Equipment Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100691 (URN)10.1109/TITB.2012.2204437 (DOI)000312268300007 ()22711780 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84870923837 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130110

Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. A Hybrid Low Power Biopatch for Body Surface Potential Measurement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Hybrid Low Power Biopatch for Body Surface Potential Measurement
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2013 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, Vol. 17, no 3, 591-599 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a wearable biopatch prototype for body surface potential measurement. It combines three key technologies, including mixed-signal system on chip (SoC) technology, inkjet printing technology, and anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) bonding technology. An integral part of the biopatch is a low-power low-noise SoC. The SoC contains a tunable analog front end, a successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, and a reconfigurable digital controller. The electrodes, interconnections, and interposer are implemented by inkjet-printing the silver ink precisely on a flexible substrate. The reliability of printed traces is evaluated by static bending tests. ACA is used to attach the SoC to the printed structures and form the flexible hybrid system. The biopatch prototype is light and thin with a physical size of 16 cm x 16 cm. Measurement results show that low-noise concurrent electrocardiogram signals from eight chest points have been successfully recorded using the implemented biopatch.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2013
Keyword
body surface potential, Active Cable, inkjet printing, ACA, wearable device, SoC, Bio-Patch
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-119278 (URN)10.1109/JBHI.2013.2252017 (DOI)000321146100011 ()2-s2.0-84885120353 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130805. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2013-03-18 Created: 2013-03-11 Last updated: 2014-03-14Bibliographically approved
3. A Multi-Parameter Bio-Electric ASIC Sensor with Integrated 2-Wire Data Transmission Protocol for Wearable Healthcare System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multi-Parameter Bio-Electric ASIC Sensor with Integrated 2-Wire Data Transmission Protocol for Wearable Healthcare System
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2012 (English)In: Proceedings -Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE, 2012, 443-448 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a fully integrated application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) sensor for the recording of multiple bio-electric signals. It consists of an analog front-end circuit with tunable bandwidth and programmable gain, a 6-input 8-bit successive approximation register analog to digital converter (SAR ADC), and a reconfigurable digital core. The ASIC is fabricated in a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS technology, occupies an area of 1.5 × 3.0 mm 2, and totally consumes a current of 16.7 μA from a 1.2 V supply. Incorporated with the ASIC, an Intelligent Electrode can be dynamically configured for on-site measurement of different bio-signals. A 2-wire data transmission protocol is also integrated on chip. It enables the serial connection over a group of Intelligent Electrodes, thus minimizes the number of connecting cables. A wearable healthcare system is built upon a printed Active Cable and a scalable number of Intelligent Electrodes. The system allows synchronous processing of maximum 14-channel bio-signals. The ASIC performance has been successfully verified in in-vivo bio-electric recording experiments.

Keyword
Bio-electric ASIC, multi-parameter biosensor, Intelligent Electrode, Active Cable, wearable healthcare system
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-75214 (URN)2-s2.0-84862067970 (Scopus ID)978-398108018-6 (ISBN)
Conference
15th Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2012; Dresden; Germany; 12 March 2012 through 16 March 2012
Note

QC 20130521

Available from: 2012-02-05 Created: 2012-02-05 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
4. A system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printed electrodes for a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printed electrodes for a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, IEEE , 2012, 5026-5029 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system, which combines traditional small-area low-power and high-performance System-on-Chip (SoC), flexible paper substrate and cost-effective Printed Electronics. Differential bio-signals are measured, digitized, stored and transmitted by the SoC. The total area of the chip is 1.5 × 3.0 mm2. This enables the miniaturization of the wearable system. The electrodes and interconnects are inkjet printed on paper substrate and the performance is verified in in-vivo tests. The quality of electrocardiogram signal sensed by printed electrodes is comparable with commercial electrodes, with noise level slightly increased. The paper-based inkjet printed system is flexible, light and thin, which makes the final system comfortable for end-users. The hybrid bio-sensing system offers a potential solution to the next generation wearable healthcare technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1557-170X
Keyword
Biosensing, Biosignals, Electrocardiogram signal, End-users, Healthcare technology, In-vivo tests, Low Power, Noise levels, Paper substrate, Potential solutions, Printed electrodes, Printed electronics, System on chips, System-On-Chip, Wearable systems
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100360 (URN)10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347122 (DOI)000313296505060 ()2-s2.0-84870779316 (Scopus ID)978-142444119-8 (ISBN)
Conference
34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS 2012; San Diego, CA;28 August 2012 through 1 September 2012
Note

QC 20130121

Available from: 2012-08-07 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2014-03-14Bibliographically approved
5. Design of a self-organized Intelligent Electrode for synchronous measurement of multiple bio-signals in a wearable healthcare monitoring system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of a self-organized Intelligent Electrode for synchronous measurement of multiple bio-signals in a wearable healthcare monitoring system
2010 (English)In: 2010 3rd International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies, ISABEL 2010, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an Intelligent Electrodes and Active Cable based wearable medical system. Within each Intelligent Electrode, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is integrated which includes a gain-bandwidth selectable analog front-end circuit, an 8-bit SAR ADC and a digital controller. The key of the ASIC is the analog front-end circuit with tunable gain and bandwidth which can be configured for Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electroencephalogram (EEG) or Electromyogram (EMG) measurement. Common mode interference is effectively rejected due to the circuit’s high Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR), which is higher than 135 dB up to 100 Hz and better than 110dB up to 1 kHz. Since a dedicated data transmission protocol is implemented on chip, the Intelligent Electrodes can establish a self-organized network and perform synchronous measurements for multiple bio-signals.

Keyword
ASIC;CMRR;ECG;EEG;EMG;SAR ADC;active cable based wearable medical system;application specific integrated circuit;common mode interference;common mode rejection ratio;digital controller;electrocardiogram measurement;electroencephalogram measurement;electromyogram measurement;gain bandwidth selectable analog front end circuit;intelligent electrode based wearable medical system;on chip dedicated data transmission protocol;self organized intelligent electrode design;self organized network;synchronous multiple biosignal measurement;tunable bandwidth;tunable gain;wearable healthcare monitoring system;analogue-digital conversion;application specific integrated circuits;biomedical electrodes;body sensor networks;data communication;electrocardiography;electroencephalography;electromyography;
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49205 (URN)10.1109/ISABEL.2010.5702786 (DOI)2-s2.0-79952011006 (Scopus ID)978-142448132-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 3rd International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies, ISABEL 2010. Roma, Italy 7 November 2010 - 10 November 2010
Note

QC 20150707

Available from: 2011-11-25 Created: 2011-11-25 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved
6. A 1.0 V 78 uW reconfigurable ASIC embedded in an intelligent electrode for continuous remote ECG applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 1.0 V 78 uW reconfigurable ASIC embedded in an intelligent electrode for continuous remote ECG applications
Show others...
2009 (English)In: EMBC: 2009 ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY, VOLS 1-20, 2009, 2316-2319 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a reconfigurable, low-power Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that extracts and transmits electrocardiograph (ECG) signals is presented. An intelligent electrode is introduced which consists of the proposed ASIC and a micro spike array, permitting onsite ECG signal acquisition, processing and transmission. Fabricated in a standard 0.18 mum CMOS process, the ASIC consumes 78 muW with 1.0 V core voltage at 6 MHz operating frequency and only occupies 2.25 mm2. The tiny silicon size makes it possible and suitable to embed the proposed ASIC into an intelligent electrode, and the low power consumption makes it feasible for long term continuous ECG monitoring.

Series
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1557-170X
Keyword
CMOS process;continuous remote ECG monitoring;electrocardiograph signal;frequency 6 MHz;health care;intelligent electrode;low-power application specific integrated circuit;micro spike array;power 78 muW;reconfigurable ASIC;signal acquisition;signal processing;signal transmission;size 0.18 mum;voltage 1.0 V;CMOS integrated circuits;application specific integrated circuits;biomedical electrodes;biomedical electronics;electrocardiography;health care;medical signal processing;patient monitoring;reconfigurable architectures;silicon;
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-75208 (URN)10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5335120 (DOI)000280543601313 ()2-s2.0-77950995276 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Annual International Conference of the IEEE-Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society. Minneapolis, MN. SEP 03-06, 2009
Note
QC 20120416Available from: 2012-02-05 Created: 2012-02-05 Last updated: 2013-03-18Bibliographically approved
7. A Novel Wearable ECG Monitoring System Based on Active-Cable and Intelligent Electrodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Wearable ECG Monitoring System Based on Active-Cable and Intelligent Electrodes
Show others...
2008 (English)In: 2008 10TH IEEE International Conference On E-Health Networking, Applications And Services, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, 156-159 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a novel wearable electrocardiograph (ECG) monitoring system is presented. Unlike most of the existing holter monitors that are composed of conventional electrodes and multiple cables, the ECG monitoring system proposed here consists of intelligent electrodes and one single Active-Cable. A prototype of a wearable ECG monitoring system is developed and implemented on Xilinx FPGAs. The experimental results show that a reliable performance with high-quality ECG data can be achieved using this novel ECG monitoring system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2008
Keyword
ECG monitoring, wearable device, Active-Cable, intelligent electrode
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-38723 (URN)10.1109/HEALTH.2008.4600127 (DOI)000259996800030 ()2-s2.0-52949089357 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-2280-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2008 10th IEEE Intl. Conf. on e-Health Networking, Applications and Service, HEALTHCOM 2008; Singapore; 7 July 2008 through 9 July 2008
Note

QC 20110906

Available from: 2011-09-06 Created: 2011-08-31 Last updated: 2016-01-07Bibliographically approved

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