Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Influence of inert gases on the reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering process of carbon-nitride thin films
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 31, no 1, 011503- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of inert gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) on the sputter process of carbon and carbon-nitride (CNx) thin films was studied using reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Thin solid films were synthesized in an industrial deposition chamber from a graphite target. The peak target current during HiPIMS processing was found to decrease with increasing inert gas mass. Time averaged and time resolved ion mass spectroscopy showed that the addition of nitrogen, as reactive gas, resulted in less energetic ion species for processes employing Ne, whereas the opposite was noticed when Ar or Kr were employed as inert gas. Processes in nonreactive ambient showed generally lower total ion fluxes for the three different inert gases. As soon as N-2 was introduced into the process, the deposition rates for Ne and Ar-containing processes increased significantly. The reactive Kr-process, in contrast, showed slightly lower deposition rates than the nonreactive. The resulting thin films were characterized regarding their bonding and microstructure by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Reactively deposited CNx thin films in Ar and Kr ambient exhibited an ordering toward a fullerene-like structure, whereas carbon and CNx films deposited in Ne atmosphere were found to be amorphous. This is attributed to an elevated amount of highly energetic particles observed during ion mass spectrometry and indicated by high peak target currents in Ne-containing processes. These results are discussed with respect to the current understanding of the structural evolution of a-C and CNx thin films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Vacuum Society , 2013. Vol. 31, no 1, 011503- p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89755DOI: 10.1116/1.4769725ISI: 000313931300007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-89755DiVA: diva2:609338
Note

Funding Agencies|ERC||Hungarian Academy of Sciences||

Available from: 2013-03-05 Created: 2013-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06
In thesis
1. Carbon Nitride and Carbon Fluoride Thin Films Prepared by HiPIMS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon Nitride and Carbon Fluoride Thin Films Prepared by HiPIMS
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis focuses on carbon based thin films prepared by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Carbon nitride (CNx: 0 < x < 0.20) as well as carbon fluoride (CFx: 0.16 < x < 0.35) thin films were synthesized in an industrial deposition chamber by reactive magnetron sputtering of graphite in Ne/N2, Ar/N2, Kr/N2, Ar/CF4, and Ar/C4F8 ambients. In order to increase the understanding of the deposition processes of C in the corresponding reactive gas mixture plasmas, ion mass spectroscopy was carried out. A detailed evaluation of target current and target voltage waveforms was performed when graphite was sputtered in HiPIMS mode. First principle calculations targeting the growth of CFx thin films revealed most probable film forming species as well as CFx film structure defining defects. In order to set different process parameters into relation with thin film properties, the synthesized carbon based thin films were characterized with regards to their chemical composition, chemical bonding, and microstructure. A further aspect was the thin film characterization for possible applications. For this, mainly nanoindentation and contact angle measurements were performed. Theoretical calculations and the results from the characterization of the deposition processes were successfully related to the thin film properties.

The reactive graphite/N2/inert gas HiPIMS discharge yielded high ion energies as well as elevated C+ and N+ abundances. Under such conditions, amorphous CNx thin films with hardnesses of up to 40 GPa were deposited. Elastic, fullerene like CNx thin films, on the other hand, were deposited at increased substrate temperatures in HiPIMS discharges exhibiting moderate ion energies. Here, a pulse assisted chemical sputtering at the target and the substrate was found to support the formation of a fullerene-like microstructure.

CFx thin films were found to have surface energies equivalent to super-hydrophobic materials for x > 0.26 while such films were polymeric in nature accounting for hardnesses below 1 GPa. Whereas, an amorphous structure for carbon-based films with fluorine contents ranging between 16 % and 23 % was observed. For those films, the hardness increased with decreasing fluorine content and ranged between 16 GPa and 4 GPa. The HiPIMS process in fluorinecontaining atmosphere was found to be a powerful tool in order to change the surface properties of carbon based thin films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. 82 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1512
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90912 (URN)978-91-7519-642-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-08, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-04-08 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2257 kB)585 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2257 kBChecksum SHA-512
1d0dc559d27c19fa475e884a7cc7d59686c686835e87465865e7a027814ee4cd9a3a5ecfd2e71026837d65862f48276f1c074f517b00c2dc962c5c17f1101318
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Schmidt, SusannCzigany, ZsoltGreczynski, GrzegorzJensen, JensHultman, Lars
By organisation
Thin Film PhysicsThe Institute of TechnologyDepartment of Physics, Chemistry and Biology
In the same journal
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 585 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 263 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf