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Applications of monolithic fiber interferometers and actively controlled fibers
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this thesis was to develop applications of monolithic fiber devices and actively controlled fibers. A special twin-core fiber known as a ‘Gemini’ fiber was used to construct equal arm-length fiber interferometers, impervious to temperature and mechanical perturbations. A broadband add/drop multiplexer was constructed by inscribing fiber Bragg gratings in the arms of a Gemini Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A broadband interferometric nanosecond switch was constructed from a micro-structured Gemini fiber with incorporated metal electrodes. Additionally, a Michelson fiber interferometer was built from an asymmetric twin-core fiber and used as a high-temperature sensor. While the device could be readily used to measure temperatures below 300 °C, an annealing process was required to extend the range up to 700 °C. The work included development, construction and evaluation of the components along with numerical simulations to estimate their behaviors and to understand the underlying processes. The thesis also explored the use of electrically controlled fibers for filtering in the microwave domain. An ultra-narrow phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating inscribed in a fiber with internal electrodes was used as a scanning filter to measure modulation frequencies applied to an optical carrier. A similar grating was used inside a dual-wavelength fiber laser cavity, to generated tunable microwave beat frequencies. The studied monolithic fiber interferometers and actively controlled fibers provide excellent building blocks in such varied field as in microwave photonics, telecommunications, sensors, and high-speed switching, and will allow for further applications in the future.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna avhandling var att utveckla tillämpningar av monolitiska fiber komponenter samt aktivt kontrollerbara fiber. En speciell tvillingkärnefiber, även kallad ’Geminifiber’ användes för att konstruera fiber interferometrar med identisk armlängd som ej påverkas av termiska och mekaniska variationer. En bredbanding utbytarmultiplexor konstruerades genom att skriva in fiber Bragg gitter inuti grenarna på en Gemini Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Geminifibrer med interna metallelektroder användes för att konstruera en bredbandig nanosekundsnabb interferometrisk fiberomkopplare. Därtill användes en tvillingkärnefiber som en hög-temperatursensor. Även om komponenten direkt kan användas upp till 300 °C, måste den värmebehandlas för att kunna användas upp till 700 °C. Arbetet har innefattat utveckling, konstruktion och utvärdering av komponenterna parallellt med numeriska simuleringar för att analysera deras beteenden samt få insikt om de underliggande fysikaliska processerna. Avhandlingen behandlar även tillämpningar av en elektriskt styrbar fiber för att filtrera radiofrekvenser. Ett ultrasmalt fasskiftat fiber Bragg gitter skrevs in i en fiber med interna elektroder och användes som ett svepande filter för att mäta modulationsfrekvensen på en optisk bärfrekvens. Ett liknande gitter användes inuti en laserkavitet för att generera två olika våglängder samtidigt. Dessa två våglängder användes sedan för att generera en svävningsfrekvens i mikrovågsbandet. De undersökta monolitiska fiberinterferometrarna och de aktivt styrbara fibrerna erbjuder en utmärkt byggsten inom så pass skiljda områden som Mikrovågsfotonik, Telekommunikation, Sensorer samt Höghastighets-omkopplare och bör kunna användas inom många olika tillämpningar i framtiden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , xiv, 161 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2013:03
Keyword [en]
Fiber, fiber Bragg grating, micro-structured fiber, add/drop multiplexer, fiber interferometer, microwave photonics, temperature sensor
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118750ISBN: 978-91-7501-658-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-118750DiVA: diva2:608028
Public defence
2013-03-21, FA 32, Albanova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20130226

Available from: 2013-02-26 Created: 2013-02-26 Last updated: 2015-03-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Photonic scanning receiver using an electrically tuned fiber Bragg grating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photonic scanning receiver using an electrically tuned fiber Bragg grating
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2009 (English)In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 34, no 24, 3794-3796 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A 5-cm-long electrically tuned fiber Bragg grating is used to filter a microwave signal on an optical carrier at 1.55 µm. A chirped distributed-feedback structure is employed, with a transmission bandwidth of 54 MHz and relative optical carrier rejection of >30 dB for rf frequencies >2 GHz. The rapid monotonic sweep of the Bragg wavelength is translated into a fast-frequency sweep for rf analysis.

Keyword
MICROWAVE PHOTONICS, TRANSVERSAL FILTER, SIGNALS
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-52431 (URN)10.1364/OL.34.003794 (DOI)000272836900011 ()
Note

QC 20111216

Available from: 2011-12-16 Created: 2011-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Monolithic Interferometers Using Gemini Fiber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monolithic Interferometers Using Gemini Fiber
2011 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 23, no 14, 1001-1003 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gemini fibers are used to fabricate monolithic interferometers. The thermal stability of a monolithic Michelson interferometer is found to be superior to that of a conventional fiber ribbon interferometer. The fabrication of fused couplers, fiber Bragg gratings, and a broadband Mach-Zehnder add-drop multiplexer are demonstrated using the novel fiber.

Keyword
Add-drop multiplexers, Bragg gratings, optical fiber devices, optical interferometry
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37151 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2011.2149513 (DOI)000292389300005 ()2-s2.0-79959957477 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130226

Available from: 2011-08-03 Created: 2011-08-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Tunable photonic microwave generation based on a novel dual-polarization fiber laser cavity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tunable photonic microwave generation based on a novel dual-polarization fiber laser cavity
Show others...
2011 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 23, no 24, 1878-1880 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel dual-polarization fiber laser is proposed by incorporating a distributed feedback grating inscribed in a twin-hole fiber with internal electrodes. Dual-polarization lasing is achieved with a spectral separation of 42 pm. By beating the optical waves at a photodiode, a microwave signal at 5.244 GHz is achieved with a signal-to-noise ratio 45 dB. An electrically tuned microwave signal with a tunable range of 150 MHz is demonstrated.

Keyword
Distributed-feedback (DFB) grating, fiber laser, microwave generation.
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-52430 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2011.2170561 (DOI)000297584900002 ()2-s2.0-82555168383 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20111216Available from: 2011-12-16 Created: 2011-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Revisiting twin-core fiber sensors for high-temperature measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting twin-core fiber sensors for high-temperature measurements
2012 (English)In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 51, no 25, 6227-6232 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A twin-core fiber Michelson interferometer is evaluated as a high-temperature sensor. Although linear and reproducible operation up to 300°C is obtained, at higher temperatures (700°C) the refractive index shifts plastically and hysteresis is observed, rendering an untreated sensor head unusable. The shift is shown to be greatly reduced by an annealing process of the fiber for 10 h at 900°C, with which the linear response is preserved.

Keyword
Refractive-Index, Optical-Fibers, Bragg Gratings, Interferometer
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101904 (URN)10.1364/AO.51.006227 (DOI)000308595500035 ()2-s2.0-84866329881 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20120912

Available from: 2012-09-05 Created: 2012-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Nanosecond monolithic Mach-Zehnder fiber switch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanosecond monolithic Mach-Zehnder fiber switch
2012 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, no 28, 29309-29318 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An electrically controlled high-speed all-fiber switch is investigated. It is based on a monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a Gemini fiber. The fiber is provided with internal electrodes for active control of the phase using high-voltage electrical pulses. The demonstrated switching speed is 20 ns. The monolithic design guarantees that the off- and on-states are attained simultaneously for a broad range of wavelengths (50 nm). The interferometer can be switched-off using a second electrode, providing a 15 ns long optical pulse.

Keyword
Optical switching devices, Nanosecond phenonema, Microstructured fibers, Acousto-optical devices, Pulses
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-108222 (URN)10.1364/OE.20.029309 (DOI)000314914500020 ()2-s2.0-84872036841 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20130115

Available from: 2012-12-19 Created: 2012-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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