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Analyzing Non-Functional Capabilities of ICT Infrastructures Supporting Power System Wide Area Monitoring and Control
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The strain on modern electrical power systems has led to an ever-increasing utilization of new information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve their efficiency and reliability. Wide area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems offer many opportunities to improve the real-time situational awareness in the power system. These systems are essen-tially SCADA systems but with continuous streaming of measurement data from the power system. The quality of WAMC systems and the applications running on top of them are heavily, but not exclusively, dependent on the underlying non-functional quality of the ICT systems.

From an ICT perspective, the real-time nature of WAMC systems makes them susceptible to variations in the quality of the supporting ICT systems. The non-functional qualities studied as part of this research are performance, interoperability and cyber security. To analyze the performance of WAMC ICT systems, WAMC applications were identified, and their requirements were elicited. Furthermore, simulation models capturing typical utility communication infrastructure architectures were implemented. The simulation studies were carried out to identify and characterize the latency in these systems and its impact on data quality in terms of the data loss.

While performance is a major and desirable quality, other non-functional qualities such as interoperability and cyber security have a significant impact on the usefulness of the sys-tem. To analyze these non-functional qualities, an enterprise architecture (EA) based framework for the modeling and analysis of interoperability and cyber security, specialized for WAMC systems, is proposed. The framework also captures the impact of cyber security on the interoperability of WAMC systems. Finally, a prototype WAMC system was imple-mented to allow the validation of the proposed EA based framework. The prototype is based on existing and adopted open-source frameworks and libraries.

The research described in this thesis makes several contributions. The work is a systematic approach for the analysis of the non-functional quality of WAMC ICT systems as a basis for establishing the suitability of ICT system architectures to support WAMC applications. This analysis is accomplished by first analyzing the impact of communication architectures for WAMC systems on the latency. Second, the impact of these latencies on the data quali-ty, specifically data currency (end to end delay of the phasor measurements) and data in-completeness (i.e., the percentage of phasor measurements lost in the communication), is analyzed. The research also provides a framework for interoperability and cyber security analysis based on a probabilistic Monte Carlo enterprise architecture method. Additionally, the framework captures the possible impact of cyber security on the interoperability of WAMC data flows. A final result of the research is a test bed where WAMC applications can be deployed and ICT architectures tested in a controlled but realistic environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , ix, 45 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:006
Keyword [en]
Power System Communication, Wide Area Monitoring and Control systems, Phasor Measurements Units, Power System Communication, SCADA systems.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118443ISBN: 978-91-7501-636-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-118443DiVA: diva2:606155
Public defence
2013-03-21, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130218

Available from: 2013-02-18 Created: 2013-02-18 Last updated: 2013-02-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Modeling and Simulation of Wide Area Communication for Centralized PMU-based Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Simulation of Wide Area Communication for Centralized PMU-based Applications
2011 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 26, no 3, 1372-1380 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phasor-based wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems are becoming a reality with increased research, development, and deployments. Many potential control applications based on these systems are being proposed and researched. These applications are either local applications using data from one or a few phasor measurement units (PMUs) or centralized utilizing data from several PMUs. An aspect of these systems, which is less well researched, is the WAMC system's dependence on high-performance communication systems. This paper presents the results of research performed in order to determine the requirements of transmission system operators on the performance of WAMC systems in general as well as the characteristics of communication delays incurred in centralized systems that utilize multiple PMUs distributed over a large geographic area. This paper presents a summary of requirements from transmission system operators with regards to a specific set of applications and simulations of communication networks with a special focus on centralized applications. The results of the simulations indicate that the configuration of central nodes in centralized WAMC systems needs to be optimized based on the intended WAMC application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2011
Keyword
Data quality, performance, phasor-measurement-unit (PMU)-based applications, wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems power system communication
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25160 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2011.2106805 (DOI)000292167800008 ()2-s2.0-79959706192 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20101011 Updated from submitted to published

Available from: 2012-10-30 Created: 2010-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. ICT architecture impact on wide area monitoring and control systems' reliability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ICT architecture impact on wide area monitoring and control systems' reliability
2011 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 26, no 4, 2801-2808 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Timely and accurate data with high resolutions holds great promise for more responsible and advanced power grid operations. The research has been focusing on design of monitoring and control scheme given the assumptions that the supporting information and communication technology (ICT) systems are capable of providing data and perform control with sufficient quality. A relatively less addressed aspect is the dependency of wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems on their supporting ICT architecture which is usually a compromise between various concerns, such as data quality, interoperability, or security. Without an appropriate ICT architecture design, the projected WAMC system functionalities run the risk of being jeopardized. This paper begins with a presentation about possible delays brought by complex data-transfer and processing processes. Analytical experiments are conducted with purposes to quantify the maximum delay and input signal's sensitivity toward delay on a typical WAMC application where the control of static var compensation (SVC) is coordinated with generator excitations using phasor measurements. Given the characteristics of this particular control scheme, two possible ICT architectures that provide data with different qualities are compared concerning the reliability of this WAMC application. This paper concludes by proposing a generic ICT architecture, enabling efficient WAMC systems implementation in terms of data quality.

Keyword
Delay, information and communication technology (ICT), phasor measurement, SVC, wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems, Information and Communication Technologies, Phasor measurements, Wide area monitoring, Architecture, Electric network topology, Interoperability, Monitoring, Phase measurement, Quality control, Information technology
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49927 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2011.2160879 (DOI)000298981800080 ()2-s2.0-80054063736 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150629

Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. PMU traffic shaping in IP-based wide area communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PMU traffic shaping in IP-based wide area communication
Show others...
2010 (English)In: 2010 5th International Conference on Critical Infrastructure, CRIS 2010 - Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, 1-6 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Phasor based Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) Systems are becoming a reality with increased research, development and deployments. Many potential control applications based on these systems are being proposed and researched. Such applications are either local applications using data from one or a few Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) or centralized utilizing data from several PMUs. An aspect of these systems, which is less well researched, is the WAMC system dependence on high performance communication. This paper presents results of research on the use of Internet Protocol (IP) networks for both PMU and Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)/Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) data for monitoring purposes. The paper examines performance aspects of the IP network Infrastructures when utilized by both: continuous PMU data streams and critical IED/RTU data. A set of simulation models characterizing a network of a Nordic Transmission System Operator were built to perform the analysis. The paper considers Quality of Service (QoS) strategies and the resulting delays and data loss that would be experienced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2010
Keyword
Communication simulation, PMU communication, PMU communication delays, Wide area monitoring and control, Data loss, Data stream, High performance communication, Intelligent electronic device, Internet protocol networks, IP networks, Nordic transmission system, Performance aspects, Phasor measurement unit, Potential control, Remote terminal units, Simulation model, Traffic-shaping, WAMC systems, Wide area monitoring, Wide-area communication, Communication, Internet protocols, Monitoring, Public works, Quality control, Quality of service, Research, Sounding apparatus, Units of measurement, Computer simulation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49933 (URN)10.1109/CRIS.2010.5617564 (DOI)2-s2.0-78649938101 (Scopus ID)9781424480814 (ISBN)
Conference
2010 5th International Conference on Critical Infrastructure, CRIS 2010; Beijing; 20 September 2010 through 22 September 2010
Note

QC 20111201

Available from: 2012-11-14 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2013-02-18Bibliographically approved
4. Implementation of an experimental wide-area monitoring platform for development of synchronized phasor measurement applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of an experimental wide-area monitoring platform for development of synchronized phasor measurement applications
2011 (English)In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011 IEEE, IEEE , 2011, 1-8 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Synchrophasor-based Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems (WAMC) are becoming a reality with increased international research and development. Several monitoring and control applications based on these systems have been proposed, and although with a relative small adoption, they are currently supporting the operations of some large transmission system operators. It is expected that the continued research and development of phasor data applications will enable the miracle of #x201C;Smart Grids #x201D; at the transmission level. The authors have realized that this can be achieved in timely fashion only if a research and development platform is developed to simultaneously address issues regarding information and communication infrastructures, and phasor data applications. This paper discusses the preliminary development, and deployment of an experimental wide-area monitoring and control platform in which several basic applications have been implemented, and that in the future will allow for the implementation and testing of envisioned applications. At its current stage, the platform allows both online monitoring and off-line analysis. In the future, it will be the cornerstone to a wider platform enabling research on phasor data applications that intrinsically account for ICT aspects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Series
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting PESGM, ISSN 1944-9925
Keyword
ICT aspect;experimental wide-area monitoring platform;off-line analysis;online monitoring;phasor data application;smart grid;synchronized phasor measurement application;transmission system operator;power system control;power system measurement;smart power grids;synchronisation;
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-63332 (URN)10.1109/PES.2011.6039672 (DOI)000297469605024 ()2-s2.0-82855177925 (Scopus ID)978-145771001-8 (ISBN)
Conference
General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society
Note
© 2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. QC 20120202Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-01-23 Last updated: 2013-02-18Bibliographically approved
5. A Framework for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems Interoperability and Cybersecurity Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems Interoperability and Cybersecurity Analysis
Show others...
2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 29, no 2, 633-641 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems are the next-generation operational-management systems for electric power systems. The main purpose of such systems is to provide high resolution real-time situational awareness in order to improve the operation of the power system by detecting and responding to fast evolving phenomenon in power systems. From an information and communication technology (ICT) perspective, the nonfunctional qualities of these systems are increasingly becoming important and there is a need to evaluate and analyze the factors that impact these nonfunctional qualities. Enterprise architecture methods, which capture properties of ICT systems in architecture models and use these models as a basis for analysis and decision making, are a promising approach to meet these challenges. This paper presents a quantitative architecture analysis method for the study of WAMC ICT architectures focusing primarily on the inter-operability and cybersecurity aspects.

Keyword
Communication systems, cybersecurity, enterprise architecture analysis, interoperability, wide-area monitoring and control systems (WAMCS)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT; SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118342 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2013.2279182 (DOI)000333523000017 ()2-s2.0-84897379296 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20140508. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2013-02-15 Created: 2013-02-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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