Modeling of Technical Losses in theSenegalese Transmission andDistribution Grids and Determination ofNon-technical Losses
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Electricity is a sector in crisis in Senegal. The main part of production and all the activities oftransmission and distribution of electricity are managed by the Senegalese National Society ofElectricity called SENELEC which is encountering enormous difficulties. One of the mostimportant problems is the fact that 21% of the produced energy is lost without being sold.This figure is enormous but quite typical with regards to African countries.Moreover, the distribution of these losses is insufficiently known. Only the production andtransmission losses can be determined from frequent and accurate measurements. Thedistribution losses represent the rest and constitute more than 80% of the losses. However, thedistribution between technical and non-technical losses (essentially due to fraud) is unknownin the distribution grid. In addition, the distribution of distribution technical losses betweenthe 30 kV, 6.6 kV and 400V grids is unknown. The goal of this Master’s Thesis is to estimatethese unknown losses. Moreover, some recommendations are suggested to reducetransmission and distribution losses.Regarding the transmission grid, Senelec does not take transmission losses into account in itsdispatching decisions, which increases transmission losses. After a Matlab modeling of thetransmission grid, a basic optimal dispatching program was developed to include losses and toprove that it would be better to consider losses in the dispatching decision.The study of the distribution grid constitutes the main part of this Master’s Thesis. Thedistribution grid can be divided in a medium-voltage grid (30 kV and 6.6 kV) and a lowvoltagegrid (400V). Losses in medium-voltage grid are estimated by the modeling of a partof this grid by using the software PSAF. Losses in low-voltage grid cannot be estimated thisway because of the lack of knowledge regarding the structure of this grid; thus, these lossesare estimated using a semi-empirical formula. Finally, non-technical distribution losses arededuced by calculating the difference between the total losses and the technical losses.The results show that the main part of the losses in Senegal are non-technical losses, whichrepresent 2/3 of the total losses and 40 billion of FCFA (61 million €), which is twice as highas what the company believed. High priority must be given to reduce them by an ambitiousplan against fraud. Technical losses even if they are smaller are not negligible and can also bereduced with some well-focused actions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EES Examensarbete / Master Thesis, XR-EE-ES 2012:020
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116893OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-116893DiVA: diva2:601608