A “Divide-by-Odd Number” Injection-Locked Frequency Divider.
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
The use of resonant CMOS frequency dividers with direct injection in frequencysynthesizers has increased in recent years due to their lower power consumptioncompared to conventional digital prescalers. The theoretical and experimentalaspects of these dividers have received great attention. This masters thesis workis a continuation of earlier work, based on the fundamentals of Injection-LockedFrequency Dividers (ILFD’s). The LC CMOS ILFD with direct injection is wellknownfor its divide-by-2 capability. However, it does not divide well by oddnumbers. The goal of this master thesis work is to modify the LC CMOS ILFDwith direct injection so that it can divide equally well by odd and even integers.In this master thesis report, an introduction to the basic concepts behindInjection-Locked frequency dividers is first presented. Some of the previous workand the background of a reference LC CMOS ILFD design are studied. The author,studied the reference design, and the experimental setup used for characterizingit’s locking behavior. The algorithm used to characterize the locking behavior ofthis ILFD are explored to reproduce the results for divide-by-even numbers for theexisting ILFD topology. Using a Spice model these results are also reproduced insimulations.Over the years, numerous ILFD circuit topologies have been proposed, most ofwhich have been optimized for division by even numbers, especially divide-by-2.It has been more difficult to realize division by odd numbers, such as divide-by-3.This master thesis work develops a simple modification to an LC CMOS injectionlocked frequency divider (ILFD) with direct injection, which gives it a wide lockingrange both in the “divide-by-odd number” mode and in the conventional “divideby-even number” regime, thereby opening up applications which require frequencydivision by an odd number. The work presents the circuit architecture, SPICEsimulations and experimental validation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 80 p.
Injection-Locked Frequency divider (ILFD), Phase Locked Loop(PLL), Frequency divider (FD)
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88014ISRN: LiTH-ISY-EX--13/4653--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-88014DiVA: diva2:601227
University College Cork and Tyndall National Institute,Cork,Ireland
Subject / course
Master of Science in Electronics Design Engineering
2013-01-08, Filtret, Linkoping university,Block B,ISY, Linkoiping, 10:15 (English)
Kennedy, Michel Peter, Professor
Alvandpour, Atila, Professor