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Printable Green RFID Antennas for Embedded Sensors
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the recent years, radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely integrated into modern society applications, ranging from barcode successor to retail supply chain, remote monitoring, detection and healthcare, for instance. In general, an RFID tag or transponder is composed of an antenna and an application-specific integrated circuit chip. In a passive UHF RFID system (which is the focus of presented research), the communication between the transponder tag and the reader is established by modulating the radar cross section (RCS) of the transponder tag. The need for flexible RFID tags has recently been increased enormously; particularly the RFID tags for the UHF band ensure the widest use but in the meantime face considerable challenges of cost, reliability and environmental friendliness.

The multidimensional focus of the aforementioned research encompasses the production of low-cost and reliable RFID tags. The state-of-the-art fabrication methods and materials for proposed antennas are evaluated in order to surmount the hurdles for realization of flexible green electronics. Moreover, this work addresses the new rising issues interrelated to the field of economic and eco-friendly tags comprising of paper substrate. Paper substrates offer numerous advantages for manufacturing RFID tags, not only is paper extensively available, and inexpensive; it is lightweight, recyclable and can be rolled or folded into 3D configurations.

The most important aspect of an RFID system's performance is the reading range. In this research several pivotal challenges for item-level tagging, are resolved by evolving novel structures of progressive meander line, quadrate bowtie and rounded corner bowtie antennas in order to maximize the reading distance with a prior selected microchip under the various constraints (such as limited antenna size, specific antenna impedance, radiation pattern requirements). This approach is rigorously evolved for the realization of innovative RFID tag antenna which has incorporated humidity sensor functionality along with calibration mechanism due to distinctiveness of its structural behavior which will be an optimal choice for future ubiquitous wireless sensor network (WSN) modules.

The RFID market has grown in a two-dimensional trend, one side constitutes standalone RFID systems. On the other side, more ultramodern approach is paving its way, in which RFID needs to be integrated with broad operational array of distinct applications for performing different functions including sensors, navigation, broadcasting, and personal communication, to mention a few. Using different antennas to include all communication bands is a straightforward approach, but at the same time, it leads to increase cost, weight, more surface area for installation, and above all electromagnetic compatibility issues. The indicated predicament is solved by realization of proposed single wideband planar spirals and sinuous antennas which covers several bands from 0.8-3.0GHz. These antennas exhibit exceptional performance throughout the operational range of significance, thus paving the way for developing eco-friendly multi-module RF industrial solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , xxxi, 111 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 12:12
Keyword [en]
RFID, Antennas, Inkjet printing, Wideband Antennas, Narrow-band Antennas
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116579ISBN: 978-91-7501-619-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-116579DiVA: diva2:596164
Public defence
2013-02-25, Sal E, KTH- Isafjordsgatan 39, Forum, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130122

Available from: 2013-01-22 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evolutionary Versatile Printable RFID Antennas For "Green" Electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary Versatile Printable RFID Antennas For "Green" Electronics
2012 (English)In: Journal Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, ISSN 0920-5071, E-ISSN 1569-3937, Vol. 26, no 2-3, 264-273 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of low cost directly printable RFID tag antennas is essential for item level tracking. We present evolutionary design approach to achieve robust extremely versatile RFID antennas on paper/flexible substrates which allow a simple integration directly on, e.g., paperboard in a roll-to-roll production line. Fully integrated printed tags for "green" electronics are designed for operability in frequencies 866-868 MHz & 902-928 MHz. We present benchmarking results for various challenges of antennas in terms of ruggedness, reliability and flexing performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2012
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95130 (URN)10.1163/156939312800030901 (DOI)000303021300011 ()2-s2.0-84864622759 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120515

Available from: 2012-05-15 Created: 2012-05-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Performance-Optimized Quadrate Bowtie RFID Antennas For Cost-Effective and Eco-Friendly Industrial Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance-Optimized Quadrate Bowtie RFID Antennas For Cost-Effective and Eco-Friendly Industrial Applications
2012 (English)In: Progress in Electromagnetics Research-PIER, ISSN 1559-8985, Vol. 126, 49-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fully integrated printed RFID antennas show potential solution for item level labeling applications. In order to accommodate the antenna during the package printing process, it is vastly preferred that antenna structures are printed on paper substrates. However, the electromagnetic properties and thickness of paper substrates are susceptible to change due to various environmental effects. Thus, adequately consistent in performance and material insensitive printed Quadrate Bowtie RFID antennas are proposed. This paper presents an in-depth efficient optimization for high performance tag antenna designs for operability in frequencies 866-868MHz & 902-928MHz. It is demonstrated that the proposed antennas can tolerate a considerable variation in the permittivity on thin paper substrates, and present benchmarking results when n across metal and water containing objects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EMW Publishing, 2012
Keyword
Antenna structures, Bow tie, Eco-friendly, Electromagnetic properties, Fully integrated, Item-level, Package printing, Paper substrate, Potential solutions, Tag antenna
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-91297 (URN)10.2528/PIER12020805 (DOI)000304139500003 ()2-s2.0-84858431122 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120618

Available from: 2012-03-12 Created: 2012-03-12 Last updated: 2016-04-26Bibliographically approved
3. Development and Analysis of Flexible UHF RFID Antennas For "Green" Electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and Analysis of Flexible UHF RFID Antennas For "Green" Electronics
2012 (English)In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research-PIER, ISSN 1070-4698, Vol. 130, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, novel Bowtie antennas which cover complete UHF RFID band (860-960MHz), fabricated on various ultra-low-cost substrates using state-of-the-art printing technologies are investigated as an approach that aims to accommodate the antenna during the package printing process whilst faster production on commercially available paper. The proposed antenna structures are evaluated in reference to circuit and field concepts, to exhibit extreme degree of functional versatility. These antennas are developed to cater the variations which appear in electromagnetic properties and thickness of paper substrate due to various environmental effects. Computed (simulated) and well-agreed measurement results confirm a superior performance of the tag modules while stepping towards next generation of "green" tags.

Keyword
RFID, antenna, flexible, "green"
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-99134 (URN)10.2528/PIER12060609 (DOI)000308582900001 ()2-s2.0-84865022996 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20120907

Available from: 2012-07-13 Created: 2012-07-13 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved
4. Design of Novel Paper-based Inkjet Printed Rounded Corner Bowtie Antenna for RFID Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of Novel Paper-based Inkjet Printed Rounded Corner Bowtie Antenna for RFID Applications
2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 115, no 4, 160-167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a novel inkjet printed rounded corner bowtie antenna with T-matching stubs on paper substrate which is the cheapest and widest available substrate. The antenna exhibits compact size with outstanding read range and complete coverage of UHF RFID band (860-960 MHz). The results show extreme immunity of proposed antenna against paper dielectric constant variation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA), 2010
Keyword
Bowtie antenna, Inkjet printing, UHF-RFID, Paper substrate, Dielectric variation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-74218 (URN)
Note
Qc 20120210Available from: 2012-02-10 Created: 2012-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Performance-optimized Printed Wideband RFID Antenna and Environmental Impact Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance-optimized Printed Wideband RFID Antenna and Environmental Impact Analysis
Show others...
(English)In: ETRI Journal, ISSN 1225-6463, E-ISSN 2233-7326Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This paper presents performance optimized RFID tag antenna, developed by using commercially accessible paper substrates and advanced inkjet printing process to guarantee mechanical flexibility and ultra-low production costs. The proposed antenna structure can endure the variations which emerge in electromagnetic properties of paper substrate due to varying environmental effects. Hole-matching technique is implemented to eliminate the matching network for reducing the consumption of conductive ink. The proposed structure is uniquely evaluated by demonstrating, sustainability and environmental impact analysis that validate the potential for ultra-low cost mass production of RFID tags for future generation of organic electronics. The antenna performance is assessed for cardboard cartons exclusively containing metal cans and water bottles. The experimental characterization of the proposed antenna endorses the wider bandwidth to cover UHF RFID ISM band (860-960MHz), which empowers its usage throughout the globe for supply chain applications. The improved design effectuates return loss of better than -15dB over a wide frequency range while exhibiting outstanding readability from 10.1 meters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Korea: ETRI
Keyword
RFID antenna, paper substrate, inkjet printing, organic electronics, sustainability analysis
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116581 (URN)
Note

QS 2013

Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
6. Green wideband RFID tag antenna for supply chain applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green wideband RFID tag antenna for supply chain applications
Show others...
2012 (English)In: IEICE Electronics Express, ISSN 1349-2543, Vol. 9, no 24, 1861-1866 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we demonstrate an RFID tag antenna manufactured by advanced inkjet printing technology on paper substrate using novel hole-matching technique for reducing the consumption of substrate material and conductive ink while attaining green RFID tags. In-depth electromagnetic analysis is performed methodologically for optimizing the parameters that effectuate the antenna dimensions. The antenna design is optimized for consistent wideband performance and extended read range throughout the complete UHF RFID band (860-960MHz), while exhibiting benchmarking results when n across cardboard cartons filled with metal or water containing objects.

Keyword
RFID tag, wideband antenna, inkjet printing, paper substrate, green electronics
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-111524 (URN)10.1587/elex.9.1861 (DOI)000314148300009 ()2-s2.0-84875044104 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130122

Available from: 2013-01-12 Created: 2013-01-12 Last updated: 2013-02-21Bibliographically approved
7. Design and Fabrication of Wideband Archimedean Spiral Antenna Based Ultra-Low Cost "Green" Modules for RFID Sensing and Wireless Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Fabrication of Wideband Archimedean Spiral Antenna Based Ultra-Low Cost "Green" Modules for RFID Sensing and Wireless Applications
2012 (English)In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research-PIER, ISSN 1559-8985, Vol. 130, 241-256 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A parametric analysis is performed for a wideband Archimedean spiral antenna in recognition of an emerging concept to integrate RFID along with several applications by using a single antenna. The antenna is fabricated using state-of-the-art inkjet printing technology on various commercially available paper substrates to provide the low-cost, flexible RF modules for the next generation of "green" electronics. The effects on electromagnetic characteristics of the planar Archimedean spiral antenna, due to the use of paper are investigated besides other parameters. The proposed antenna is evaluated and optimized for operational range from 0.8-3.0GHz. It exhibits exceptional coverage throughout numerous RFID ISM bands so do for other wireless applications.

Keyword
Archimedean spiral antenna, RFID, wideband, inkjet printing
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100690 (URN)10.2528/PIER12070807 (DOI)000308582900013 ()2-s2.0-84866559185 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20121019

Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-13 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved
8. "Green" Wideband Log-Spiral Antenna for RFID Sensing and Wireless Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Green" Wideband Log-Spiral Antenna for RFID Sensing and Wireless Applications
2012 (English)In: Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, ISSN 0920-5071, Vol. 26, no 14-15, 2043-2050 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The novel idea of integrating RFID with sensors along with other wireless applications by using single tag antenna is implemented, by fabricating proposed antenna using state-of-the-art inkjet printing technology on commercially available paper substrates. For the first time, a parametric analysis is performed for realization of planar log-spiral antenna on paper for operational range from 0.8-3.0GHz, which also exhibits excellent coverage throughout numerous RFID ISM bands, and for other wireless applications. The ANSYS HFSS tool is used to design and predict the performance of the proposed antenna in terms of radiation pattern and input impedance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Taylor & Francis, 2012
Keyword
Log-spiral, inkjet printing, paper substrate, wideband
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101161 (URN)10.1080/09205071.2012.724767 (DOI)000309127700027 ()2-s2.0-84876384388 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20121026

Available from: 2012-08-24 Created: 2012-08-24 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved
9. Two-arm Sinuous Antenna for RFID Ubiquitous Sensors and Wireless Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two-arm Sinuous Antenna for RFID Ubiquitous Sensors and Wireless Applications
2012 (English)In: Journal Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, ISSN 0920-5071, E-ISSN 1569-3937, Vol. 26, no 17-18, 2365-2371 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the first time, two-arm planar sinuous antenna is demonstrated to realize the emerging concept of integrating RFID functionalities along with sensors and other wireless applications for "green" electronics. In-depth, parametric analysis is performed for the proposed antenna which is fabricated on a paper substrate using revolutionary inkjet printing technology to develop a system-level solution for ultra-low-cost mass production of multipurpose wireless tags in an approach that could be easily expanded to other microwave and wireless "cognition" applications. The proposed antenna exhibits excellent performance throughout several RFID ISM bands and for other wireless applications in its operational range from 0.8 to 3.0 GHz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Taylor & Francis, 2012
Keyword
Two-Arm sinuous, RFID antenna, paper substrate, inkjet printing
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102495 (URN)10.1080/09205071.2012.734438 (DOI)000310596300019 ()2-s2.0-84875713195 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130122

Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2012-09-18 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
10. RFID antenna humidity sensor co-design for USN applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RFID antenna humidity sensor co-design for USN applications
Show others...
2013 (English)In: IEICE Electronics Express, ISSN 1349-2543, E-ISSN 1349-2543, Vol. 10, no 4, 20130003- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate for the first time an RFID tag antenna which itself is humidity sensor and also provides calibration functionality. The antenna is comprised of T-matching network and horizontally meandered lines for impedance matching and reliable near-field communication. The novel contour design provides humidity sensing, and calibration functions whilst concurrently acts as a radiating element along with quadrangular capacitive tip-loading with covered middle portion for far-field communication. The inkjet printed prototypes of the antenna provide effective ambient humidity sensing while demonstrating stable RFID communication. The antenna has a compact size of 1.1 x 10.2 cm for 902-928MHz band.

Keyword
RFID antenna, humidity sensor, sensor calibration, inkjet printing, flexible electronics
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116582 (URN)10.1587/elex.10.20130003 (DOI)000316989800007 ()2-s2.0-84877329405 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

QC 20130506. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
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