Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Situated Reflexive Change: User-Centred Design in(to) Practice
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media technology and interaction design, MID.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7662-9687
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Technology used in the Swedish workplace is perceived to be controlling, gener- ally still difficult to use, and with a low degree of usability. Even though the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has been concerned with researching different ways of developing usable systems for at least half a century, there seem to be problems with the diffusion of the results into practice. One of the possible approaches to developing usable systems is user-centred design, and in this thesis I am concerned with the issue of introducing user-centred design and usability work in public authorities and institutions. I will present work done in two different research projects with a focus on change, where the aim has been to introduce or enhance usability work. Through a lens of social construction- ism and reflexivity I will explore the outcome of the projects and the implica- tions for the introduction of user-centred design in practice. Furthermore, I will explore whether the focus on the introduction of usability work might hinder the formation of a sustainable change in the organizations interested in devel- oping usable systems. The research question then becomes; can we introduce usability work in organizations?

The answer to this question is no. Instead, we need to change our perspective from introduction to situated reflexive change: focusing on sensemaking and a situated process of ongoing change, where the stakeholders in the organization themselves must play an active and responsible part. This entails a shift from dualism to duality and a reconsideration of what our usability methods can con- tribute with. Furthermore, I will explore possible approaches to working with situated reflexive change with tools that are familiar in the field of HCI, but with an expanded scope. In particular I will discuss field studies conducted by system developers as a tool for making sense of usability issues, personas as a tool for inducing reflexivity in and on practice, and usability coaching as a sensemaking tool for both organizational stakeholders and researchers in order to understand and reflect upon change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. , xviii, 72 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2012:18
Keyword [en]
user-centred design, user-centred systems design, organizational change, sensemaking, reflexivity, practice
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116403ISBN: 978-91-7501-610-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-116403DiVA: diva2:589513
Public defence
2013-02-08, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130118

Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2013-01-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Hello World! - Experiencing Usability Methods without Usability Expertise
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hello World! - Experiencing Usability Methods without Usability Expertise
2009 (English)In: HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION - INTERACT 2009, PT II, PROCEEDINGS, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, 550-565 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

How do you do usability work when no usability expertise is available? What happens in an organization when system developers, with no previous HCI knowledge, after a 3-day course, start applying usability methods, and particularly field studies? In order to answer these questions qualitative data were gathered through participatory observations, a feed back survey, field study documentation and interviews from 47 system developers from a public authority. Our results suggest that field studies enhance the developer's understanding of the user perspective, and provide a more holistic overview of the use situation, but that some developers were unable to interpret their observations and see solutions to the users' problems. The field study method was very much appreciated and has now become standard operating procedure within the organization. However, although field studies may be useful, it does not replace the need for usability pro fes sion als, as their knowledge is essential for more complex observations, analysis and for keeping the focus on usability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743
Keyword
Field studies - ethnography - usability - user centered systems design - case study - public authority - sense making
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-50727 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-03658-3_60 (DOI)000270204900060 ()978-3-642-03657-6 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala, SWEDEN. AUG 24-28, 2009
Note
QC 20111208Available from: 2011-12-07 Created: 2011-12-07 Last updated: 2013-01-18Bibliographically approved
2. Towards a usability coaching method for institutionalizing usability in organisations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a usability coaching method for institutionalizing usability in organisations
2010 (English)In: Human-computer interaction: Second IFIP TC 13 Symposium, HCIS 2010, held as part of WCC 2010, Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010 : proceedings / [ed] Peter Forbrig, Fabio Paternó, Annelise Mark Pejtersen, New York: Springer, 2010, 86-97 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The ideas related to user centred systems design are difficult to implement in organisations and usability is given low priority in in-house systemsdevelopment. This problem is multifaceted and complex and needs to be addressed with a method capable of adapting to situations, people and context. Inthis paper we outline a new method – usability coaching – that has the capability for dealing with the situated problems of introducing user centred systemsdevelopment in an organisations. The method is the results of a larger action research case study in which 9 individuals in an organization received usabilitycoaching. Our study indicates that the coaching program made coachees workmore actively with usability activities; hence the coaching program had a substantial effect on their actions and contributed to the organizational change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2010
Series
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1868-4238 ; 332
Keyword
Coaching, user centred-systems design, organizational change, usability, action research, qualitative research, learning theories, conceptual change, threshold concept
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-59911 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-15231-3_10 (DOI)2-s2.0-84943637067 (Scopus ID)978-3-642-15230-6 (ISBN)
Conference
Second IFIP TC 13 Symposium, HCIS 2010, held as part of WCC 2010, Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010
Note
QC 20120113Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2012-01-12 Last updated: 2013-01-18Bibliographically approved
3. The secret life of a persona: when the personal becomes private
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The secret life of a persona: when the personal becomes private
2013 (English)In: CHI '13 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM , 2013, 2677-2686 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Some organizations fail to involve users in systems development due to a widespread organization, high workload or secrecy issues. A remedy against this situation could be the persona method in which users and main stakeholders as represented as fictitious characters. Personas help eliciting user needs and requirements, facilitate design choices and are an overall communication aid where users cannot be present. An important part of the persona method, as portrayed in literature, is the personal details that make the personas trustworthy and alive. In this paper we present two cases in which personas have been developed and used, but where the personal is scarce or even non-existent because of a dispersed organisation, the organisational culture and secrecy issues. The paper describes how the personas were developed, used and received and how the method was altered in order to work in these special circumstances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM, 2013
Keyword
Persona, Secrecy issues, Stakeholder, Systems development, User centred design
National Category
Engineering and Technology Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-116405 (URN)10.1145/2470654.2481370 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877990541 (Scopus ID)978-145031899-0 (ISBN)
Conference
31st Annual CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Changing Perspectives, CHI 2013; Paris; France; 27 April 2013 through 2 May 2013
Note

QC 20130816. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2013-08-16Bibliographically approved
4. UCD Guerrilla Tactics: A Strategy for Implementation of UCD in the Swedish Defence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>UCD Guerrilla Tactics: A Strategy for Implementation of UCD in the Swedish Defence
2012 (English)In: Human Work Interaction Design – HWID2012: Pre-conference proceedings of the 3rd IFIP TC 13.6 HWID working conference / [ed] Clemmensen, Torkil; Abdelnour-Nocera, Jose; Mark Pejtersen, Annelise; Lopes, Arminda; Katre, Dinesh; Campos, Pedro; Ørngreen, Rikke;, 2012, 116-126 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The problem of how to implement user-centred design (UCD) is well established as a research topic within HCI. Yet there are unresolved issues in order for UCD to actually be used in practice. This paper will present a case study within the Swedish Defence, concerning the introduction of UCD. The overarching goal of the research was to bridge the gap between work practices and systems development; focusing the efforts on introducing usability in the procurement process. We concluded early on that we needed to develop and formulate an approach that is probably common in practice but not described or used in research. We call this strategy UCD guerrilla tactics. It is to do the unexpected, to introduce UCD through UCD and to choose change projects pragmatically. Our main target group was future users and procurers of UCD methods. We aimed at introducing UCD to them by demonstrating and involving them in the work through user centred activities. It is also a flexible approach based on continuous evaluation of what is feasible and potentially gives the largest outcome. This paper describes the guerrilla tactics, how it was applied in a case study and factors that should be considered when using it.

Keyword
User-centred design; procurement; usability; organizational change; case study; work practice.
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-109247 (URN)
Conference
Human Work Interaction Design - HWID2012
Note

QC 20130118

Available from: 2012-12-21 Created: 2012-12-21 Last updated: 2013-01-18Bibliographically approved
5. User-Centred Systems Design as Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Action Research Project to Improve Usability and the Computerized Work Environment in a Public Authority
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User-Centred Systems Design as Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Action Research Project to Improve Usability and the Computerized Work Environment in a Public Authority
Show others...
2009 (English)In: International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, ISSN 1548-3908, E-ISSN 1548-3916, Vol. 5, no 3, 13-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a longitudinal case study in which six Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers worked extensively in an action research cooperation with a public authority over a period of four years. The purpose of the cooperation was to increase the focus on usability in the authority, and the main research question was how user centered systems design and increased awareness on work environment in relation to computer usage could promote organizational change in a public authority. The overarching research approach in this project has been action research and the data used in this paper is derived from an evaluation performed at the end of the project, as well as through our experiences from working with the project. The results involve aspects relating to organizational issues, management support, strategic documents and end-user participation. Moreover the results include methodological support for bringing users and developers closer together and individual and organizational attitudes to development. The purpose of this paper is to make some general conclusions on how to bring about change when approaching a large public authority with the purpose of introducing usability and user centered systems design.

National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47958 (URN)10.4018/jthi.2009070102 (DOI)
Note
QC 20111118Available from: 2011-11-15 Created: 2011-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

SituatedReflexiveChange(1132 kB)654 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1132 kBChecksum SHA-512
80be0ee85a5ef32df2039d283ab05767cde780cd3d2610938bd853a8e2ac3dc6aac9a02d4964d6b6c887357d24f31032ae6aead1702077be282e999ef3cd75a3
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Eriksson, Elina
By organisation
Media technology and interaction design, MID
Human Computer Interaction

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 654 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1039 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf