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The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology. (Larhammar)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
2012 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 12, 231- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide varietyof physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species. Results: We find that the SSTRs form two families that belong to distinct paralogons. We observe not only chromosomal similarities reflecting the paralogy relationships between the SSTR-bearing chromosome regions, but also extensive rearrangements between these regions in teleost fish genomes, including fusions and translocations followed by reshuffling through intrachromosomalrearrangements. These events obscure the paralogy relationships but are still tractable thanks tothe many genomes now available. We have identified a previously unrecognized SSTR subtype, SSTR6, previously misidentified as either SSTR1 or SSTR4. Conclusions: Two ancestral SSTR-bearing chromosome regions were duplicated in the two basalvertebrate tetraploidizations (2R). One of these ancestral SSTR genes generated SSTR2, -3 and -5, the other gave rise to SSTR1, -4 and -6. Subsequently SSTR6 was lost in tetrapods and SSTR4 in teleosts. Our study shows that extensive chromosomal rearrangements have taken place between related chromosome regions in teleosts, but that these events can be resolved by investigating several distantly related species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 12, 231- p.
Keyword [en]
Somatostatin receptors, Whole genome duplications, Chromosome rearrangements
National Category
Biological Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-189967DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-12-231ISI: 000314219500001OAI: diva2:582615
Available from: 2013-01-05 Created: 2013-01-05 Last updated: 2013-02-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evolution of Vertebrate Endocrine and Neuronal Gene Families: Focus on Pituitary and Retina
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of Vertebrate Endocrine and Neuronal Gene Families: Focus on Pituitary and Retina
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The duplication of genes followed by selection is perhaps the most prominent way in which molecular biological systems gain multiplicity, diversity and functional complexity in evolution. Whole genome duplications (WGDs) therefore have the potential of generating an extraordinary amount of evolutionary innovation. It is now accepted that the vertebrate lineage has gone through two rounds of WGD in its early stages, after the divergence of invertebrate chordates and before the emergence of jawed vertebrates. These basal vertebrate WGDs are called 2R for two rounds of whole genome duplication. An additional WGD called 3R occurred early in the evolution of teleost fishes, before the radiation of this species-rich group. This thesis describes the evolution of several endocrine and neuronal gene families in relation to the vertebrate WGDs, through a comparative genomic approach including both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location data across a wide range of vertebrate taxa.

These results show that numerous endocrine gene families have expanded in 2R and in several cases also in 3R. These include the gene families of oxytocin and vasopressin receptors (OT/VP-R), somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP). For the OT/VP-R and SSTR families, previously undescribed subtypes were identified. The protein hormone family that includes growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) acquired a new PRL gene in 2R, however the origins of GH, PRL and SL likely predate 2R. The corresponding family of receptors diversified during different time periods through a combination of local duplications and 3R.

Neuronal gene families of the visual system have also expanded in 2R and 3R. The results presented here demonstrate that the vertebrate repertoire of visual opsin genes arose in 2R as part of chromosomal blocks that also include the OT/VP-R genes. The gene families including the transducin alpha, beta and gamma subunits also arose in 2R, hinting at the importance of these events in the diversification and specialization of phototransduction cascades for rods and cones.

Thus, the whole genome duplications have been important contributors to the evolution of both vision and endocrine regulation in the vertebrates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 55 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 856
phylogenetics, evolution, molecular evolution, gene family evolution, genome duplication, gene duplication, oxytocin receptor, vasopressin receptor, visual opsin, transducin, growth hormone, prolactin, somatolactin, growth hormone receptor, prolactin receptor, somatostatin receptor, SSTR, IGFBP, evolution, molekylär evolution, fylogeni
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-191829 (URN)978-91-554-8579-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-03-01, B7:101a, Uppsala Biomedical Centre, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Available from: 2013-02-07 Created: 2013-01-14 Last updated: 2013-04-02

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