Environmental protection in Swedish forestry: a study of the implementation process
1987 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
According to the Swedish Forestry Act, environmental protection is required within forest operations regardless of forest ownership. This thesis examines the extent to which regulations issued by the National Board of Forestry are implemented in clearcuttings. Different factors contributing to the outcome of environmental protection are analyzed both from a top-down and a bottom-up perspective. Empirically, the study combines field investigation of clearcuts, interviews with implementing actors, and evaluation of written prescriptions and advice on environmental protection. The Swedish forest-environmental legislation and implementation process is also compared to that of the U.S. and, especially, to the state of California .
Conflicting goals within the Forestry Act and vague environmental guidelines leave the implementing agency officers with great discretion. Steering attempts by the Forestry Agency are in terms of friendly advice and information. No breaches of the regulations were taken to court during 1980-1986 although this is formally possible.
There is an average compliance of approximately fifty per cent of the required environmental measures. Aesthetic values are taken into account to a greater extent than pure floristic and faunistic ones. Economic considerations and harvest technology contribute to a low degree of environmental protection. Forest machines are inadequately suited for protecting single, environmentally valuable trees and they frequently cause deep tracks.
Inadequate environmental knowledge and insufficient pre-harvest environmental planning also affect environmental performance negatively. Generally, economic considerations contribute to the low priority to environmental protection given by the implementing actors compared to timber production. Economic inducements counteract environmental protection.
It is generally rare that environmentalists and other public interests affected by forest operations are consulted. Environmentalists however influence indirectly through political pressure to legislate, participation in the consultation process before legislation is enacted, and mass-media attention.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1987. , 220 p.
Statsvetenskapliga institutionens skriftserie, ISSN 0349-0831 ; 12
clear felling, environmental policy, forest policy, Forestry Act, implementation analysis, nature conservation, public participation
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-62914OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-62914DiVA: diva2:580041