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Annealing behavior of reactively sputtered precursor films for Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Ångström Solar Center)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Ångström Solar Center)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Ångström Solar Center)
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2013 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 535, 22-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reactively sputtered Cu–Zn–Sn–S precursor films are prepared and recrystallized by rapid thermal processing to generate Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell absorber layers. We study how the film properties are affected by substrate heating and composition. The stress, density and texture in the films were measured. Compressive stress was observed for the precursors but did not correlate to the deposition temperature, and had no influence on the properties of the annealed films or solar cells. However, the substrate temperature during precursor deposition had a large effect on the behavior during annealing and on the solar cell performance. The films deposited at room temperature had, after annealing, smaller grains and cracks, and gave shunted devices. Cracking is suggested to be due to a slightly higher sulfur content, lower density or to minor differences in material quality. The grain size in the annealed films seems to increase with higher copper content and higher precursor deposition temperature. The best device in the current series gave an efficiency of 4.5%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 535, 22-26 p.
Keyword [en]
Cu2ZnSnS4, CZTS, Kesterite, Reactive sputtering, Thin film solar cell, Stress, Density
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-188166DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.10.081ISI: 000318973600007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-188166DiVA: diva2:576578
Available from: 2012-12-13 Created: 2012-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Reactive sputtering and composition measurements of precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactive sputtering and composition measurements of precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a thin film solar cell material that only contains abundant elements and for which promising conversion efficiencies of 9.2 % have been shown. In this thesis composition measurements and reactive sputtering of precursors for CZTS films have been studied. These precursors can be annealed to create high quality CZTS films.

Accurate control and measurement of composition are important for the synthesis process. The composition of a reference sample was determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. This sample was thereafter used to find the composition of unknown samples with x-ray fluorescence measurements. Pros and cons with this approach were discussed.

The reactive sputtering process, and the resulting thin films, from a CuSn- and a Zn-target sputtered in H2S-atmosphere were investigated and described. A process curve of the system was presented and the influence of sputtering pressure and substrate temperature were examined. The pressures tested had little influence on the film properties but the substrate temperature affected both composition and morphology, giving less Zn, Sn and S and a more oriented film with increasingly facetted surface for higher temperatures.

The precursors produced with this method are suggested to have a disordered phase with randomized cations, giving a CZTS-like response from Raman spectroscopy but a ZnS-pattern from x-ray diffraction measurements. The films have an excellent homogeneity and it is possible to achieve stoichiometric sulfur content.

The complete steps from precursors, to annealed films, to finished solar cells were investigated for three controlled compositions and three substrate temperatures. The films sputtered at room temperature cracked when annealed and thus gave shunted solar cells. For the samples sputtered at higher temperatures the trend was an increased grain size for higher copper content and increased temperature. However, no connection between this and the electrical properties of the solar cells could be found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2013. 44 p.
Keyword
Cu2ZnSnS4, Kesterite, Reactive sputtering, Process curve, Photovoltaics, Composition measurments
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-208543 (URN)
Presentation
2013-06-03, Å2005, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-02 Last updated: 2013-10-16Bibliographically approved

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