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Transport-Layer Performance in Wireless Multi-Hop Networks
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. (Datavetenskap)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless communication has seen a tremendous growth in the last decades. Continuing on this trend, wireless multi-hop networks  are nowadays used or planned for use in a multitude of contexts, spanning from Internet access at home to emergency situations.

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides reliable and ordered delivery of a data and is used by major Internet applications such as web browsers, email clients and file transfer programs. TCP traffic is also the dominating traffic type on the Internet. However, TCP performs less than optimal in wireless multi-hop networks due to packet reordering, low link capacity, packet loss and variable delay.

In this thesis, we develop novel proposals for enhancing the network and transport layer to improve TCP performance in wireless multi-hop networks. As initial studies, we experimentally evaluate the performance of different TCP variants, with and without mobile nodes. We further evaluate the impact of multi-path routing on TCP performance and propose packet aggregation combined with aggregation aware multi-path forwarding as a means to better utilize the available bandwidth. The last contribution is a novel extension to multi-path TCP to  enable single-homed hosts to fully utilize the network capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2013. , p. 71
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2013:1
Keyword [en]
TCP, MPTCP, transport protocols, packet aggregation, multi-path routing, reordering, wireless multi-hop networks, tactical MANET, mobile ad hoc networks, wireless mesh networks
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15603ISBN: 978-91-7063-473-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-15603DiVA: diva2:575005
Public defence
2013-03-04, 1B 364, Fröding, Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Opponent changed. Prof. C. Lindeman from the University of Leipzig was substituted by Prof. Zhang.

Available from: 2013-02-08 Created: 2012-11-14 Last updated: 2013-02-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. TCP Performance in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Connected to the Internet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TCP Performance in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Connected to the Internet
2007 (English)In: REVISTA CIENTÍFICA PERIÓDICA - TELECOMUNICAÇÕES, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-7060 (URN)
Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-17 Last updated: 2013-06-19Bibliographically approved
2. Performance Evaluation for TCP in Tactical Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluation for TCP in Tactical Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of International Conference on Wireless Information Networks and Systems, SciTePress, 2012, p. 277-282Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Tactical networks are used in military and rescue operations to provide timely and accurate information to operating teams.  Tactical networks have traditionally used long distance narrow band radio links. However, although these links provide robust real-time communication the limited bandwidth makes them less suited for high data-rate applications.  To support high-data rate TCP applications such as providing digital images and maps, emerging tactical networks use shorter range but higher data-rate wide band radio links and multi-hop.  Due to the requirement of cheap up-front cost, most MANET research has focused on Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. However, in tactical networks, where bounded delays are important, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) can give better possibility to support the Quality of Service needed for real-time communication.  The purpose of this paper is to assess and compare the throughput of three state-of-the-art TCP versions and two routing protocols over TDMA based MANETs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SciTePress, 2012
Keyword
MANET, TCP, Tactical Networks, TDMA
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-16109 (URN)978-989-8425-73-7 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Wireless Information Networks and Systems (WINSYS'12), 24-27 July, 2012, Rome
Available from: 2012-12-07 Created: 2012-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Impact of Packet Aggregation on TCP performance in Wireless Mesh Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Packet Aggregation on TCP performance in Wireless Mesh Networks
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the First IEEE WoWMoM Workshop on Hot Topics in Mesh Networking (HotMESH'09), IEEE , 2009, p. 1-7Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2009
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-7067 (URN)10.1109/WOWMOM.2009.5282435 (DOI)978-1-4244-4440-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
4. TCP Performance Evaluation in Wireless Mesh Networks using Packet Aggregation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TCP Performance Evaluation in Wireless Mesh Networks using Packet Aggregation
2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have attracted attention as a way to provide alternative wireless Internet connectivity. In a WMN, access points communicate with each other wirelessly, forming a wireless mesh backbone network. One major problem in WMNs is low performance due to MAC and PHY layer overhead for transmission of small packets. Around 44 percent of the packets in the Internet are smaller than 100 bytes and a majority of these packets are TCP packets. The capacity of WMNs can therefore be increased significantly by packet aggregation (concatenation) of TCP packets. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of packet aggregation on TCP performance in WMNs. Using both synthetic and trace based traffic distributions we demonstrate that packet aggregation can not only increase capacity for TCP in such networks but also reduce round trip times.

Keyword
TCP, packet aggregation, Wireless Mesh Networks, performance evaluation, simulation, packet concatenation
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15600 (URN)
Available from: 2012-12-06 Created: 2012-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. An Aggregation Aware Multi-path Forwarding Paradigm for Wireless Mesh Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Aggregation Aware Multi-path Forwarding Paradigm for Wireless Mesh Networks
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of 10th International IFIP-TC6 conference on Networking, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-7070 (URN)978-3-642-20797-6 (ISBN)
Conference
The 10th International IFIP-TC6 Networking Conference (Networking 2011), Valencia, Spain, May 2001
Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
6. Combining Multi-Path Forwarding and Packet Aggregation for Improved Network Performance in Wireless Mesh Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Multi-Path Forwarding and Packet Aggregation for Improved Network Performance in Wireless Mesh Networks
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 68, p. 26-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) based on the IEEE 802.11 standard are becoming increasingly popular as a viable alternative to wired networks. WMNs can cover large or difficult to reach areas with low deployment and management costs. Several multi-path routing algorithms have been proposed for such kind of networks with the objective of load balancing the traffic across the network and providing robustness against node or link failures. Packet aggregation has also been proposed to reduce the overhead associated with the transmission of frames, which is not negligible in IEEE 802.11 networks. Unfortunately, multi-path routing and packet aggregation do not work well together, as they pursue different objectives. Indeed, while multi-path routing tends to spread packets among several next-hops, packet aggregation works more efficiently when several packets (destined to the same next-hop) are aggregated and sent together in a single MAC frame. In this paper, we propose a technique, called aggregation aware forwarding, that can be applied to existing multi-path routing algorithms to allow them to effectively exploit packet aggregation so as to increase their network performance. In particular, the proposed technique does not modify the path computation phase,but it just influences the forwarding decisions by taking the state of the sending queues into account.We demonstrated our proposed technique by applying it to Layer-2.5, a multi-path routing and forwarding paradigm for WMNs that has been previously proposed.We conducted a thorough performance evaluation by means of the ns-3 network simulator, which showed that our technique allows to increase the performance both in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
Wireless Mesh Network, Multi-path routing, Packet Aggregation
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-16113 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2014.01.006 (DOI)000335610700003 ()
Available from: 2012-12-07 Created: 2012-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
7. The Interaction Between TCP Reordering Mechanisms and Multi-path Forwarding in Wireless Mesh Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Interaction Between TCP Reordering Mechanisms and Multi-path Forwarding in Wireless Mesh Networks
Show others...
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE 8th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), IEEE Press, 2012, p. 276-283Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Routing packets over multiple disjoint paths towards a destination can increase network utilization by load-balancing the traffic over the network. In wireless mesh networks, multi-radio multi-channel nodes are often used to create a larger set of interference-free paths thus increasing the chance of load-balancing. The drawback of load-balancing is that different paths might have different delay properties, causing packets to be reordered. This can reduce TCP performance significantly, as reordering is interpreted as a sign of congestion. Packet reordering can be avoided by letting the network layer forward traffic strictly on flow-level. This would avoid the negative drawbacks of packet reordering, but will also limit the ability to achieve optimal network throughput. On the other hand, there are several proposals that try to mitigate the effects of reordering at the transport layer. In this paper, we perform an in-depth evaluation of such TCP reordering mitigations in multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks when using multi-path forwarding. We evaluate two TCP reordering mitigation techniques implemented in the Linux kernel. The transport layer mitigations are compared using different multi-path forwarding strategies. Our findings show that, in general, flow-level forwarding gives the best TCP performance and that transport layer reordering mitigations only marginally can improve performance

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2012
Keyword
TCP, reordering, Wireless Mesh Networks, Multi-channel, Multi-radio, Multi-path
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-14503 (URN)10.1109/WiMOB.2012.6379088 (DOI)978-1-4673-1429-9 (ISBN)
Conference
The 8th IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob 2012), October 2012, Barcelona, Spain
Note

Kommande

Available from: 2012-08-15 Created: 2012-08-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
8. MPTCP PathFinder - finding your ways to aggregated bandwidth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MPTCP PathFinder - finding your ways to aggregated bandwidth
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many  networks are multi-path; mobile devices have multiple interfaces, data centers have redundant paths and ISPs forward traffic over disjoint paths to perform load-balancing. Multi-path TCP (MPTCP) is a new mechanism that transparently divides a TCP connection into subflows and distributes them over a host's network interfaces. While this enables multi-homed systems like e.g. smartphones to use several interfaces and thus different, and mostly disjoint, network paths for a single transmission, most end-systems are still single-homed. With one interface, standard MPTCP creates only a single subflow, making single-homed systems unable to benefit from MPTCP's functionality. In this paper we propose PathFinder, an MPTCP extension that tries to estimate the number of subflows required to fully utilize  the network capacity, enabling single-homed hosts to reap the benefits of MPTCP. We evaluate MPTCP with PathFinder and compare its performance to standard MPTCP. The evaluation shows that PathFinder is able to open a limited but sufficient amount of subflows to significantly increase the throughput when compared to using standard MPTCP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012. p. 22
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2012:59
Keyword
MPTCP, Congestion Control, Wireless Mesh Networks, Multi-Path Routing
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-16167 (URN)978-91-7063-472-7 (ISBN)
Note

E-pub only.

Available from: 2013-01-08 Created: 2012-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • asciidoc
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