Reactive sputtering of precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells
2012 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 24, 7093-7099 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The quaternary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a possible In-free replacement for Cu(In,Ga)Se-2. Here we present reactive sputtering with the possibility to obtain homogeneous CZTS-precursors with tunable composition and a stoichiometric quantity of sulfur. The precursors can be rapidly annealed to create large grained films to be used in solar cells. The reactive sputtering process is flexible, and morphology, stress and metal and sulfur contents were varied by changing the H2S/Ar-flow ratio, pressure and substrate temperature. A process curve for the reactive sputtering from CuSn and Zn targets is presented. The Zn-target is shown to switch to compound mode earlier and faster compared to the CuSn-target. The precursors containing a stoichiometric amount of sulfur exhibit columnar grains, have a crystal structure best matching ZnS and give a broad peak, best matching CZTS, in Raman scattering. In comparing process gas flows it is shown that the sulfur content is strongly dependent on the H2S partial pressure but the total pressures compared in this study have little effect on the precursor properties. Increasing the substrate temperature changes the film composition due to the high vapor pressures of Zn, SnS and S. High substrate temperatures also give slightly denser and increasingly oriented films. The precursors are under compressive stress, which is reduced with higher deposition temperatures. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 520, no 24, 7093-7099 p.
Cu2ZnSnS4, Kesterite, Reactive sputtering, Process curve, Photovoltaics, X-ray diffraction
Engineering and Technology
Research subject Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183573DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.08.002ISI: 000308691700011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-183573DiVA: diva2:574634