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Towards Predictable and Reliable Wireless Communication in Harsh Environments
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. (ISS)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
##### Abstract [en]

Wireless communication in industrial, scientific and medical applications have several benefits. The main benefits when using wireless technologies include ease-of-deployment, the simplicity to introduce new units into the network and mobility. However it also put higher demands on the communication, including reliability and predictability compared to wired communication. The reliability issues correlate to the radio communication and the possibility to ensure that the user data is received, and within the time frame of the system requirements. This doctoral thesis presents an empirical measurement approach to investigate and model the behaviour linked to reliability and predictability. The focus of the work presented is energy consumption, packet-error-rate and latency studies. This is performed for various radio technologies and standards in (radio?) harsh environments. The main contributions of this thesis are the measurements platforms and procedures that have been developed to meet the requirements to investigate modern radio technologies in terms of predictability and reliability. This thesis show that it is possible to predict wireless communication in radio harsh environments. However it is necessary to determine the characteristics of the environment to be able to choose a suitable radio technology. The measurement procedures presented in this thesis alongside the platform developed enable these types of investigations. In this thesis a model of the energy consumption for a Bluetooth radio in low-duty-cycle applications with point-to-multipoint communication is presented. The measurements show that distance and transmission power will not effect the energy consumption for a Bluetooth nor ZigBee module. However the packet-error-rate and number of retransmissions will affect the overall energy consumption, and these parameters can be correlated to distance and foremost the environmental characteristics. This thesis also presents two application-based solutions, a time synchronized ECG network with reliable data communication as well as a low-latency wireless I/O for a hydro plant.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mälardalen University , 2013.
##### Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 134
##### Keyword [en]
Wireless, Reliable, predictable, Bluetooth, Zigbee, hardware development, measurements
##### National Category
Engineering and Technology
Electronics
##### Identifiers
ISBN: 978-91-7485-098-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-16413DiVA: diva2:574587
##### Public defence
2013-01-25, Lambda, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 10:15 (English)
##### Projects
TeslaGauss Available from: 2012-12-06 Created: 2012-12-06 Last updated: 2012-12-14Bibliographically approved
##### List of papers
1. Bluetooth energy characteristics in wireless sensor networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bluetooth energy characteristics in wireless sensor networks
2008 (English)In: 2008 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WIRELESS PERVASIVE COMPUTING, VOLS 1-2, 2008, 198-202 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
##### Abstract [en]

In this paper a measurement system to create an experimental model and a tool box for simulations concerning both the energy consumption and the time aspect when creating wireless sensor networks using Bluetooth 2.0 + enhanced data rate has been developed. Further energy and time characteristics for critical events when using Bluetooth 2.0 in wireless sensor networks are investigated experimentally, with the main events; create connection, send data, receive data, and idle state. Results show that when allowing higher latencies for the connection in the Wireless Sensor Networks the power consumption drops drastically when using low power mode as sniff.

##### National Category
Engineering and Technology
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-7231 (URN)10.1109/ISWPC.2008.4556196 (DOI)000258921600043 ()2-s2.0-51649120648 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-1652-3 (ISBN)
##### Conference
3rd International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing Location: Santorini, GREECE Date: MAY 07-09, 2008
Available from: 2009-09-25 Created: 2009-09-25 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
2. Reliable Wireless ECG Sensor Network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliable Wireless ECG Sensor Network
2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Vasteras: , 2009
Computer Systems
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-9125 (URN)
##### Conference
Medicinteknikdagarna, Västerås, 2009
Available from: 2010-03-03 Created: 2010-03-03 Last updated: 2017-03-08Bibliographically approved
3. Comparison study of ZigBee and Bluetooth with regards to power consumption, packet-error-rate and distance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison study of ZigBee and Bluetooth with regards to power consumption, packet-error-rate and distance
##### Abstract [en]

This paper present a empirical measurement comparison study of ZigBee and Bluetooth. The parameters investigated are power consumption, packet-error-rate or retransmissions and distance in different environments. This study shows the differences and similarities for the two different short range radio technologies. A measurement set-up and procedure that makes it possible to investigate power consumption of the radio module, retransmissions and packet-error-rate as well as ambient noise is presented. For both the Bluetooth and the ZigBee modules used in this study the distance itself have no influence of the power consumption. However the retransmission rate and packet-error-rate have a large influence on the power consumption. This study have show that the environment has a great impact on the range of the radio modules and the behaviour concerning the retransmission rate and packet-error-rate.

##### Keyword
Distance, environmental, Wireless Sensor Network, Radio models, Packet-eDistance, Environments, Packet-error-rate, retransmission, empirical measurements, Radio models, Power consumption, ZigBee
##### National Category
Engineering and Technology
Electronics
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-16407 (URN)
Tesla
##### Note

Submitted manuscript to The 14th IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, WoWMoM 2013

Available from: 2012-12-05 Created: 2012-12-05 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
4. Development of Programmable Micro Power Meter Testbed for Radio Modules
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Programmable Micro Power Meter Testbed for Radio Modules
##### Abstract [en]

This paper presents the POMPOM testbed for high precision power consumption \textit{in situ} measurements for interchangeable radio modules.The main requirements for the development have been;

Interchangeable radio modules to enable the same hardware testbed to be used independently of the radio standard used make comparison studies possible.

The testbed should be programmable so that the need for hardware development should be minimized. The testbed must be able to act as a controller for the communication and simultaneously make accurate \textit{in situ} measurements of the energy consumption of the radio.

The required sample rate must be at least 50 kSamples per second. The range of the current measurement should cover at least 0.2~$\mu$Ampere to 60~mAmpere with at least 14-bit resolution.

Mobility, low cost and small size are vital for the testbed. It must be possible to deploy several measurement testbeds to act as sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network to capture the behavior of the entire network.

The results for test measurement setup for POMPOM is presented to illustrate a typical usage of the testbed. The results presented show how the testbed can be used to investigate the correlation between distance, packet-error-rate and current consumption for a Zigbee radio.

##### Keyword
Wireless, Testbed, Testbed development, Radio modules, Energy consumption.
##### National Category
Engineering and Technology
Electronics
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-16401 (URN)
Tesla
##### Note

Submitted manuscript to IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Available from: 2012-12-05 Created: 2012-12-04 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
5. A Bluetooth Radio Energy Consumption Model for Low Duty-Cycle Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Bluetooth Radio Energy Consumption Model for Low Duty-Cycle Applications
2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 61, no 3, 609-617 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

This paper presents a realistic model of the radio energy consumption for Bluetooth-equipped sensor nodes used in a low-duty-cycle network. The model is based on empirical energy consumption measurements of Bluetooth modules. This model will give users the possibility to optimize their radio communication with respect to energy consumption while sustaining the data rate. This paper shows that transmission power cannot always be directly related to energy consumption. Measurements indicate that, when the transmission power ranges from $-$5 to $+$10 dBm, the difference in consumed energy can be detected for each transmission peak in the sniff peak. However, the change is negligible for the overall energy consumption. The nonlinear behavior of the idle state for both master and slave when increasing the interval and number of attempts is presented. The energy consumption for a master node is in direct relation to the number of slaves and will increase by approximately 50% of the consumption of one slave per additional slave, regardless of the radio setting.

##### Keyword
Bluetooth, energy model, low-duty-cycle applications, power consumption, radio models
##### National Category
Telecommunications
Electronics
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13403 (URN)10.1109/TIM.2011.2172997 (DOI)000300248600005 ()2-s2.0-84857051531 (Scopus ID)
TESLA
##### Note

(c) 2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works

Available from: 2011-12-06 Created: 2011-12-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
6. A wireless low latency control system for harsh environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A wireless low latency control system for harsh environments
2012 (English)In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline): Vol. 11, PART 1, 2012, 17-22 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
##### Abstract [en]

The use of wireless communication technologies in the industry offer severaladvantages. One advantage is the ability to deploy sensors where they previously could noteasily be deployed, for instance on parts that rotate. To use wireless communication in industrialcontrol loops, demands on reliability and latency requirements has to be met. This in anenvironment that may be harsh for radio communication. This work presents a reliable, lowlatency wireless communication system. The system is used in a wireless thyristor control loopin a hydro power plant generator. The wireless communication is based on Bluetooth radiomodules. The work shows a latency analysis together with empirical hardware based latencyand packet error rate measurements. The background noise of a hydro power plant station isalso investigated. The average latency between the Bluetooth modules for the proposed systemis 5.09 ms. The packet error rate is 0.00288 for the wireless low latency control system deployedin a hydro power plant.

##### National Category
Communication Systems
Electronics
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-14719 (URN)2-s2.0-84880915283 (Scopus ID)9783902823144 (ISBN)
##### Conference
11th IFAC/IEEE Conference on Programmable Devices and Embedded Systems – PDES 2012, May 23 - 25, 2012 Brno, Czech Republic
Available from: 2012-06-12 Created: 2012-06-12 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved

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