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Examination of the bidirectional influences of leisure activity and memory in old people: a dissociative effect on episodic memory
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9862-3032
Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden; Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
2014 (English)In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 105, no 3, 382-398 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study examined the relationships between different types of activities, cognitive and social, and episodic memory and semantic memory. A total of 794 adult men and women from five age cohorts (aged 65-85 at baseline), participating in the longitudinal Betula project on aging, memory, and health, were included in the study. The participants were studied over 10 years (1995-2005) in threes waves. Recognition and recall were used as episodic memory tasks, and knowledge and verbal fluency as semantic memory tasks. The results, after controlling for age, gender, education and some diseases, including heart disease and hypertension, as covariates, showed unidirectional effects of social activity on episodic memory on all test occasions (β = .10). Also, episodic memory predicted change in cognitive activity for all test waves (β = .21-.22). The positive role of social activity on memory function is discussed in terms of cognitive reserve theory, and the reduction of stress. It also seems that episodic memory performance is a predictor of cognitive activity in old people. However, the opposite direction does not hold true.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 105, no 3, 382-398 p.
Keyword [en]
Episodic memory, semantic memory, social activity, cognitive activity
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26554DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12044ISI: 000339437100006PubMedID: 25040007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84904071137OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-26554DiVA: diva2:573335
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2001-6654, 2002-3794 and 2003-3883
Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Engaged lifestyle and episodic and semantic memory: longitudinal studies from the betula project
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engaged lifestyle and episodic and semantic memory: longitudinal studies from the betula project
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation examines whether some aspects of engaged lifestyle, marital status and leisure activity, influence memory performance in adulthood and old age. Direct effects and indirect effects, via health, are investigated. All the studies in the dissertation examine participants in the Betula project, aged 35 to 85 years. Study I investigates whether there are reliable effects of marital status on memory function in a large sample of participants in adulthood and old age. The results demonstrate that marriage has an influence on some specific types of memory functions. They show that there are significant differences between married and single individuals in episodic memory, but not in semantic memory. Also, the extent of decline in episodic memory was found to be significantly larger for singles and widowed individuals than for married people over five years. Study II examines the relationships between different types of social and cognitive activities and episodic and semantic memory. The results show that a unidirectional effect of social activity on episodic memory was detectable on all test occasions. Also, episodic memory predicted change in cognitive activity during all test waves. However, there were no significant effects with regard to semantic memory and leisure activity in either direction. Study III explores longitudinally whetherengaged lifestyle, including marriage and leisure activity, directly affects memory performance, or whether the effect is mediated by health. The overall results demonstrate that marriage predicts episodic memory function directly. Leisure activity can also predict episodic memory performance ten years later, but indirectly via health. An active and engaged lifestyle can protect people against memory decline. The positive impact of engaged lifestyle on memory performance is discussed in terms of cognitive reserve theory, and in relation to the decrease in distress afforded by social support from other people.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2012. 76 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Psychology, ISSN 1651-1328 ; 26
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26141 (URN)978-91-7668-894-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-30, Hörsal L3, Långhuset, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-09 Created: 2012-10-09 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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