Averting HIV and AIDS epidemic in Nicaragua: Studies of prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The overall aim of this thesis was to obtain an understanding of the dynamics of the HIV epidemic by estimating prevalence and exploring the relationship between HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and HIV status in Nicaragua. Structured questionnaires were administered to adults from a health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua (Papers I–III). In-depth interviews and a survey were conducted among men who have sex with men (MSM, Paper IV). Blood sampling for HIV was carried out among 2,204 men and women (Paper I). Bivariate and multivariate analyses, including adjusted prevalence ratio (Papers I, II, IV), factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, and hierarchical regression analysis (Paper III) were performed. Thematic analysis was used with qualitative data (Paper IV).
The prevalence of HIV in the general population was 0.35% (95% CI, 0.17–0.73). Those who have taken a HIV test were more likely to be females, younger, living in an urban setting, have a higher level of education, be married or cohabiting, and have no religious affiliation. HIV-related knowledge was lower among members of the general population than among MSM. Unprotected sex was reported more times with regular partners than with casual partners. Findings suggested that consistency of condom use and emotional attachment (steady relations) were inversely related. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population; they appeared to be negatively associated with HIV-related knowledge, self-perception of HIV risk, HIV testing, and willingness to disclose HIV status in the event of being HIV-positive. Findings demonstrated an increasing tolerance towards same-sex attractions. MSM have a better understanding of HIV transmission than men and women of the general population. Although seven out of ten MSM and six out of ten women were concerned about becoming infected with HIV, inconsistent condom use was common.
This study confirmed that Nicaragua has a low prevalence but high risk for HIV infection and transmission. Results underscore that social, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to retard progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on reducing gender inequality and combating HIV/AIDS. Addressing these challenges depends not only on successful behavior change interventions, but requires a culturally gender-appropriate strategy.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 67 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 847
HIV-related knowledge, vulnerability, risk behaviors, stigma, discrimination, men who have sex with men, gender, sexuality, Nicaragua
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject Medical Science; Social Medicine
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-186673ISBN: 978-91-554-8553-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-186673DiVA: diva2:572900
2013-01-16, Room IX, plan 2, Uppsala University Main Building, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Marions, Lena, Senior lecturer
Essén, Birgitta, Associate professorHögberg, Ulf, ProfessorValladares Cardoza, Eliette
List of papers