Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Media processes for content production: Studies of structures and climate impacts
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media technology and interaction design, MID.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The business environment in which media companies exist today is rapidly changing. Many media companies are in the process of positioning themselves to this ongoing change and to finding their place in the new media landscape. A process of change creates an opportunity to optimize work processes on different levels. In order to meet these opportunities, as well as being proactive when it comes to environmental performance, we need to understand the current structures of media companies, for example when it comes to work processes.

The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the process structures and the potential climate impact of the content production of three different media companies in Sweden: a local newspaper, a monthly magazine and a local television station. The overall research questions of this thesis are:

• What are the major editorial processes at media companies and how can the workflows be visualized, in order for us to discover how the processes can be optimized and how this in turn may affect the environmental impact?

• How are the results of the process analysis related to a general assessment of the carbon footprint of the content production, in order for us to identify the major reasons for this potential climate change impact and opportunities for change?

The research methods used were semi-structured interviews and carbon footprint assessment. The research results suggest that in general terms, newspapers and magazines spend a considerable amount of working time producing content, and content production is the single most important reason for travelling at the three media companies studied. Travel is also done by management to a high degree in all three case studies, mostly to different kinds of business meetings. Planning is another work activity that takes up a considerable amount of time when looking at the total time spent at work. Computers are to a high degree used when planning, but more advanced computer programmes or tools could be recommended to expand the planning possibilities further, thereby saving time and money for the media company.The results of the life cycle assessments indicate that the major reasons for potential climate change impact are travel – both work-related business travel and trips to and from work – electronic equipment, and electricity use. The research results suggest that in order to reduce potential environmental impact from travel, media management should look into technical solutions for meetings at a distance, car-pooling or increasing the use of public transportation. Furthermore, new technical solutions have a potential to lower the costs of the content production processes and streamline work processes in general. With a conscious effort by management, new technology could also be beneficial for the overall environmental impact of the media company. The media companies could for example consider the environmental performance to a higher degree when buying new electronic devices, such as computers. Finally, the media companies could look over their electricity use and make an attempt to reduce their electricity use, as well as making active choices for environmentally friendly alternatives when choosing electricity supplier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , vi, 24 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2012:17
Keyword [en]
media, work processes, content production, LCA, climate impacts
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105803ISBN: 978-91-7501-571-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-105803DiVA: diva2:572245
Presentation
2012-12-14, E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121128

Available from: 2012-11-28 Created: 2012-11-27 Last updated: 2012-11-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Local newspaper publishing: editorial structure and environmental effects - a case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local newspaper publishing: editorial structure and environmental effects - a case study
2011 (English)In: Advances in Printing and Media Technology, ISSN 0892-2284, E-ISSN 1942-597X, Vol. 38, 403-410 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Media companies operate in a dynamic environment where change is a constant. Pursuing change in a media company implies an opportunity to optimize processes on different levels. In order to meet these opportunities, as well as being proactive when it comes to environmental performance, we need to understand the current structure of media companies. Better understanding can lead to finding ways to optimize the workflow and to implement other improvements.

This study investigates the structure of the editorial processes and other processes regarding content production of a local newspaper in Sweden, Norrtelje Tidning. The objective is to analyze the workflow in order to discover how the different steps in the production process might affect potential environmental impact. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify the process steps involved in the content production. Environmental data was then collected for each process step, and a screening environmental assessment with a life-cycle perspective was performed.

The major reasons for potential environmental impact related to content production at Norrtelje Tidning are travel and the use of electronic devices. These two areas are relevant to focus on when striving to reduce environmental impact on a general level.

Keyword
local newspaper, work process, environmental impact, media industry, life cycle assessment (LCA)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105850 (URN)
Note

QC 20121128

Available from: 2012-11-28 Created: 2012-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Magazine Publishing: Editorial Process Structure and Environmental Impacts - Case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magazine Publishing: Editorial Process Structure and Environmental Impacts - Case study
2012 (English)In: Taga proceedings: 64th annual technical conference, Sewickley , 2012, 184-203 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the structure of the editorial processes at a Swedish monthly magazine for interior decorating and design, Sköna hem, and assesses the carbon footprint (greenhouse gas emissions) of the editorial content production during one year. The objective is to define the processes using a computer based process modeling tool and to analyze the workflow in order to discover how the different steps in the production process relate to different environmentally related parameters. An additional objective is to present the carbon footprint of the overall editorial work and to identify the major reasons for greenhouse gas emissions, as well as any major data gaps and uncertainties. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken in order to identify the process steps involved in the content production. Environmentally related parameters, such as travel distance, mode of transports, and computer hours, were then collected for each process step. Life cycle assessment methodology was used to assess the potential greenhouse gas emissions of the editorial work at Sköna hem. A number of process steps were identified in the content production. Three overall phases were identified, into which the process steps can be grouped. Firstly, the planning phase consists of meetings with different key persons in order to plan the content of the next issues of the magazine. Secondly, the executive phase was identified. Here, all the articles and pictures are produced. Thirdly, the assembly phase includes text editing and page design. Finally, ready-made pages are sent to printing or to the digital publishing channels such as tablets and the web. According to the assessment made, the editorial content production at Sköna hem has a carbon footprint of 23 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents per year. The major reasons are the manufacturing of computers and screens used at the office, business trips by plane, and transports by delivery firms mainly used for transporting furniture and other objects to and from photo sessions. The use of computers and screens is mostly associated with the assembly phase, business trips by plane with the planning phase and transports by delivery firms with the executive phase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sewickley, 2012
Keyword
Content production, Editorial process, Environmental impact, Media, Workflow
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105851 (URN)2-s2.0-84877652027 (Scopus ID)978-193518504-8 (ISBN)
Conference
64th Annual Technical Conference of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA: Disseminating Graphic Arts Research Internationally since 1948; Jacksonville, FL; United States; 18 March 2012 through 21 March 2012
Note

QC 20121128

Available from: 2012-11-28 Created: 2012-11-28 Last updated: 2015-04-16Bibliographically approved
3. Local Television Content Production: Process Structures and Climate Impacts – a Case Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local Television Content Production: Process Structures and Climate Impacts – a Case Study
2012 (English)In: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, Vol. 1, no 4, 215-232 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The business environment in which media companies exist today is rapidly changing. If they have not done so already, media companies need to position themselves to this ongoing change and find their place in the new media landscape. However, this could also mean a good opportunity to optimize work processes on different levels. In order to meet these opportunities, as well as being proactive when it comes to environmental performance, we first need to understand the current structure of media companies, for example when it comes to work processes.

The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the process structure and the potential climate impact of the content production of the local television station TV4 Gävle/Dalarna in Sweden. The study objectives are:

  • to identify the major editorial and marketing processes and to visualize the two workflows in order to discover how the processes could be optimized and how this in turn may affect the environmental impact.
  • to assess the carbon footprint of the content production of the local television station and to identify the major reasons for this climate change impact.

Two main methods were used – semi-structured interviews and carbon footprint assessment.

The editorial part of the workflow is centered on broadcasting news at certain times. A total of nine process steps were identified in the editorial workflow. The largest amount of person hours can be found in the process steps of content production and content editing. Work is done in order to meet the deadlines which come every time there is a broadcast. This fact puts special demands on the personnel, such as an ability to manage stress and short deadlines, and an ability to handle the technical equipment in one-person teams. There is a total of seven process steps on the marketing side, two of which are located outside of the local television station.

A large part of the carbon footprint from the TV4 Gävle/Dalarna content production is caused by business trips by car. The editorial department makes most of the business trips, but the marketing department is also responsible for some of the trips. The total carbon footprint from the television production is estimated to 52 tons of CO2 eq/year, including the employees’ trips to andfrom the workplace. The trips to and from work is the second largest contributor to the carbon footprint. When considering the impact per viewer, the result is 0.35 kg of CO2 eq/viewer and year.

Judging from today’s situation, the efficiency on the editorial side is very good. However, it might still be fruitful to consider the travelling practices in order to improve the overall environmental performance.

Keyword
Carbon footprint, environmental impact, LCA, media, television, workflow structure
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105855 (URN)
Note

QC 20121128

Available from: 2012-11-28 Created: 2012-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Media Processes for Content Production(383 kB)729 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 383 kBChecksum SHA-512
87c81c6e1e30f1609ecdd67ae3ec2223830482680b3a2f7ac24e0930e81bcce3347d2a27ad7ad63df5e43933b2e7e786eb32b1996c4fa75852c4e2851ca4690a
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Picha Edwardsson, Malin
By organisation
Media technology and interaction design, MID
Social Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 729 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 466 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf