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Measurements for winter road maintenance
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Physics.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly installed along roads to measure road weather conditions and support road maintenance personnel in taking appropriate actions. In order to improve winter road maintenance, more precise information about road surface conditions is essential. In this thesis, different methods for estimation of road weather are developed, discussed and tested. The methods use the principles of infrared thermometry, image analysis and spectroscopy to describe ice formation, snow accumulation and road surface wetness in specific patches or along road sections. In practical applications, the methods could be used for better planning of snow clearing operations, forecasting of ice formation and spreading of road salt. Implementing the proposed methods could lead to lower maintenance costs, increased traffic safety and reduced environmental impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , x, 45 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1069
Keyword [en]
winter road maintenance; sensors; infrared thermometry, energy efficiency, road salt
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105152ISBN: 978-91-7501-566-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-105152DiVA: diva2:570114
Public defence
2012-12-07, V1, Teknikringen 76, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20121116

Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-16 Last updated: 2013-09-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Ice formation detection on road surfaces using infrared thermometry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ice formation detection on road surfaces using infrared thermometry
2012 (English)In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 83-84, 71-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ice formation on roads causes hazardous conditions due to reduction of road surface friction. Forecasting, detecting and preventing ice formation are therefore of high importance for winter road maintenance personnel. Advanced sensors for detecting road ice exist, but there is a demand for more cost-effective technologies. A method for detection of road surface ice formation based on remote temperature measurements with infrared thermometers is presented. Freezing events were detected based on the temperature dynamics that result from the exothermic reaction as water freezes. Experimental measurements in a climate chamber and in field conditions showed that ice formation often causes a distinct temperature pattern, which could easily be identified and distinguished from other temperature fluctuations. The method is promising as a cost-effective technique suitable for several applications in cold regions where detection of ice formation is important.

Keyword
Ice formation, Road surface, Infrared thermometry, Winter road maintenance
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104107 (URN)10.1016/j.coldregions.2012.06.004 (DOI)000309308600009 ()2-s2.0-84865783782 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20121029

Available from: 2012-10-29 Created: 2012-10-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Optimization of winter road maintenance energy costs in Sweden: a critique of site specific frost warning techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of winter road maintenance energy costs in Sweden: a critique of site specific frost warning techniques
2012 (English)In: Meteorological Applications, ISSN 1350-4827, E-ISSN 1469-8080, Vol. 19, no 4, 443-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Frost formation on roads may cause slippery conditions and thereby increase the risk of accident occurrence. Roads are often treated with preventive operations using de-icing agents (e.g. road salt), which are ideally planned and performed prior to frost formation. The decisions on when and where to treat different road stretches with salt are based on meteorological measurements and forecasts. This paper investigates how uncertainties in meteorological measurements for frost prediction at road weather stations affect the efficiency of winter road maintenance. Different types of uncertainties and errors are discussed, together with potential solutions. The effects on winter road maintenance efficiency are discussed in terms of energy and cost. It was found that improvements in frost warning accuracy and reliability can lead to considerable savings and more efficient winter road maintenance.

Keyword
hoar frost, winter road maintenance, energy costs, sensors
National Category
Physical Geography Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-84752 (URN)10.1002/met.275 (DOI)000312147800007 ()2-s2.0-84870657901 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130110

Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Infrared Thermometry in Winter Road Maintenance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infrared Thermometry in Winter Road Maintenance
2012 (English)In: Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, ISSN 0739-0572, E-ISSN 1520-0426, Vol. 29, no 6, 846-856 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is significant interest among road authorities in measuring pavement conditions to perform appropriate winter road maintenance. The most common monitoring methods are based on pavement-mounted sensors. This study's hypothesis is that the temperature distribution in a pavement can be measured by means of a nonintrusive method to retrieve the topmost pavement temperature values. By utilizing the latest infrared (IR) technology, it is possible to retrieve additional information concerning both road temperatures and road conditions. The authors discovered that surface temperature readings from IR sensors are more reliable than data retrieved from traditional surface-mounted sensors during wet, snowy, or icy road conditions. It was also possible to detect changes in the road condition by examining how the temperatures in wheel tracks and in between the wheel tracks differ from a reference dry road condition. The conclusion was that nonintrusive measurement of the road temperature is able to provide an increase in relation to the knowledge about both the road temperature and the road condition. Another conclusion was that the surface temperature should not be considered as being equal to the ground temperatures retrieved from traditional surface-mounted sensors except under conditions of dry, stable roadways.

Keyword
Temperature, Model
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98942 (URN)10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00071.1 (DOI)000305272100007 ()2-s2.0-84864765461 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120711

Available from: 2012-07-11 Created: 2012-07-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. IMAGE PROCESSING AS A METHOD FOR DETERMINING ROAD SNOW ACCUMULATION
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IMAGE PROCESSING AS A METHOD FOR DETERMINING ROAD SNOW ACCUMULATION
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Snowfall often causes limitations for road transportation and large efforts are devoted to snow removal. Snow that falls on a road surface often melts due to the surface being warmer than the air under some circumstances. Melting of snow can also be induced by use of road salt. Consequently, snow measurements by precipitation sensors along roads may indicate thicker snow depths than are actually present on the roads. A method for determining the onset time of snow accumulation on roads based on a combination of precipitation measurements and image processing is presented. The method detects whether the snow accumulates rather than melts. It can be used to calculate accumulated snow depth, a more accurate measurement than using precipitation sensors alone. The method was tested over one winter and showed potential to improve the description of snow accumulation in a road network, which could lead to more efficient planning of snow removal.

Keyword
Winter road maintenance; Snow ploughing; Image analysis
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105142 (URN)
Note

QS 2012

Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-16 Last updated: 2012-11-16Bibliographically approved
5. Road surface wetness variations: Measurements and effects for winter road maintenance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Road surface wetness variations: Measurements and effects for winter road maintenance
2013 (English)In: Journal of transportation engineering, ISSN 0733-947X, E-ISSN 1943-5436, Vol. 139, no 8, 787-796 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Road wetness is a critical parameter when it comes to preventing road slipperiness. It has so far been difficult to measure, but new measurement techniques on the market make it useful to investigate the savings opportunities within road maintenance operations. The present study tests a new sensor mounted on a road maintenance vehicle run in a maintenance district in central Sweden. The sensor that measures road surface water depth is connected to a global positioning system (GPS) system and a global system for mobile communications (GSM) phone modem. Potential savings are calculated based on the measured road surface water depth and on the amount of applied salt needed to lower the freezing point to a certain degree. The results indicate variations in water depth along the measured roads, which implies that the salt concentrations along the roads could also vary. Though the variations were smaller along the tested highway, the calculated savings could still be up to 22%. Despite the many assumptions made in the calculations, considerable savings could potentially be realized by applying such wetness measurements.

Keyword
Road wetness, Mobile measurement, Road salt savings
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105147 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000546 (DOI)000322720800002 ()2-s2.0-84881225767 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130902. Updated from manuscript to article in journal. Previous title:

Road Surface Wetness Variations – Measurements And Impacts For Winter Road Maintenance

Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
6. ROAD SURFACE WETNESS AS AFFECTED BY EVAPORATION, SURFACE RUNOFF AND TRAFFIC SPLASHING
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ROAD SURFACE WETNESS AS AFFECTED BY EVAPORATION, SURFACE RUNOFF AND TRAFFIC SPLASHING
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Road surface wetness governs the fate of pollutants on the road surface. The wetness is also important for estimating the risk of ice formation during winters. The road surface water is affected by evaporation, run-off and traffic induced splash and spray. Increased knowledge of how these processes govern the road surface water and how they could be modelled would help to improve the possibility to abate problems with raised levels of air pollutants, as well as traffic safety issues by facilitating optimization of the use of anti- and de-icing chemicals. The aim of this study was to use a modeling tool in order to differentiate between three processes governing the loss of wetness from the road surface within a cross section of a road during two different climatic scenes (winter and spring). Two new measurement techniques were used for detailed measurements of road surface wetness across a road to validate the model. It could be concluded that the changes in wetness on the road can be simulated from general simple weather and traffic information. Furthermore, the wetness across the road is very heterogeneous and can be described by a distribution of regulating parameter values. The presented model application has a potential for real time application on roads and within a region and also for predictions of future conditions by using weather forecast data.

National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-105150 (URN)
Note

QS 2012

Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-16 Last updated: 2012-11-16Bibliographically approved

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