The Local Level-Set Extraction Method for Robust Calculation of Geometric Quantities in the Level-Set Method
The level-set method is an implicit interface capturing method that can be used in two or more dimensions. The method is popular e.g. in computer graphics, and as here, in simulations of two-phase flow. The motivation for the simulations performed here is to obtain a better understanding of the complex two-phase flow phenomena ocurring in heat exchangers used for liquefaction of natural gas, including the study of droplet-film interactions and coalescence.
One of the main advantages of the level-set method is that it handles changes in the interface topology in a natural way. In the present work, the calculation of the curvature and normal vectors of an interface represented by the level-set method is considered. The curvature and normal vectors are usually calculated using central-difference stencils, but this standard method fails when the interface undergoes
a topological change, e.g. when two droplets collide and merge. Several methods
have previously been developed to handle this problem. In the present work,
a new method is presented, which is a development on existing methods. The new
method handles more general cases than previous methods. In contrast to some
previous methods, the present method retains the implicit formulation and
can easily be extended to three-dimensional simulations, as demonstrated in this work.
Briefly, the new method consists in extracting one or more local level sets for
bodies close to the grid point considered, reinitializing these local level sets
to remove kinks, and using these to calculate the curvature and normal vector at
the grid point considered. For the curvature, multiple values are averaged,
while for the normal vector, the one corresponding to the closest interface is
With this new method, several two-phase flow simulations are performed that are
relevant for understanding the liquefaction of natural gas. The new method
enables simulations that are more general than previous ones. A two-dimensional
simulation was performed of a 0.6 mm diameter methanol droplet falling through air and merging with a deep pool of methanol. The new method gave good results in this case, but unphysical oscillations in the pressure field rendered this result unsuitable
for comparison with experimental results.
Several similar cases with significantly lower density differences between the
two fluids were also considered; in these cases, the pressure field behaved
physically, but the results are less applicable to the understanding of natural
gas liquefication, and better suited for validation of the new method. In
particular, an axisymmetric simulation of a 0.11 mm diameter water droplet in decane
merging with a deep pool of water has been considered. The results of this
simulation show a very close agreement with experimental data. Attempts were
also made to simulate a larger droplet, but in this case finer grids were needed
than what could be achieved here due to the computational time cost of grid
Purely geometrical results are also presented in order to validate the results of the new method, and three-dimensional results are given for a static interface configuration, demonstrating that the method is easily extended to higher dimensions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutt for fysikk , 2012. , 125 p.
ntnudaim:8230, MTFYMA fysikk og matematikk, Teknisk fysikk
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:no:ntnu:diva-19429Local ID: ntnudaim:8230OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ntnu-19429DiVA: diva2:567049
Simonsen, Ingve, ProfessorMunkejord, Svend Tollak