Integration of a Fractal Generator with Mali GPU
The Mandelbrot set is a well-known fractal with mathematical properties
that can be exploited to create 3D-landscapes. The operations required to
calculate a heightmap using the Mandelbrot set are highly parallelizable
and is thus suitable for a hardware implementation. Generation of 3D-
landscapes,on-the-y, using the Mandelbrot set is desirable since the Mandel-
brot set is innitely complex and deterministic. This makes possible the
creation of many dierent landscapes with complex patters in, for example,
A previous master thesis presents a vertex array generator(VAG) that
generates the vertices of a 3D-landscape based on an area of the Mandelbrot
set. This thesis explores dierent architectures that connect this vertex array
generator with the Mali-400 graphics processing unit(GPU). The result is
that the VAG in its current state is not suitable for integration, mostly since
it does not support random access to vertices. Thus, a new fractal generator
architecture is presented, reusing parts of the VAG.
The new fractal generator is implemented in Verilog and its functionality
is veried using the Universal Verication Methodology(UVM). Then, the
fractal generator is integrated with the Mali-400 GPU in an FPGA frame-
work and synthesized on FPGA. Tests are also performed at each step of
An OpenGL for Embedded Systems 2.0 demo is written to showcase the
functionality of the fractal generator. Changes have been made to the Mali-
400 drivers to automatically congure and set-up the fractal generator while
the demo is running.
The fractal generator is shown to be working as intended with a scalable
performance based on a number of internal cores. Using 64 cores the fractal
generator has a worst-case frame time of 51.1 ms at 400Mhz which equals a
frame rate of 450 frames pr second, vastly outperforming a software imple-
The fractal generator is currently limited to creating landscapes of 128x128
points, the intention was to use the demo and driver to increase the resolution
but this has not been solved.
Increasing the resolution and optimizing the cache size of the fractal generator
has been left for future work.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutt for elektronikk og telekommunikasjon , 2012. , 135 p.
ntnudaim:7366, MTEL elektronikk, Design av digitale systemer
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:no:ntnu:diva-18810Local ID: ntnudaim:7366OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ntnu-18810DiVA: diva2:566285
Kjeldsberg, Per Gunnar, FørsteamanuensisGjermundnes, Øystein