A flexible resonance sensor system for detection of cancer tissue: evaluation on silicon
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The most common form of cancer among men in Europe and the US is prostate cancer. When a radical prostatectomy has been found necessary, it is of interest to examine the prostate, as tumour tissue on the capsule might indicate that the cancer has metastased. This is commonly done by a microscope-based morphometric investigation. Tumour tissue is normally stiffer than healthy tissue. Sensors based on piezoelectric resonance technology have been introduced into the medical field during the last decade. By studying the change in resonance frequency when a sensor comes into contact with a material, conclusions can be drawn about the material.
A new and flexible measurement system using a piezoelectric resonance sensor has been evaluated. Three translation stages, two for horizontal movements and one for vertical movement, with stepper motors are controlled from a PC. A piezoelectric resonance element and a force sensor are integrated into a sensor head that is mounted on the vertical translation stage. The piezoelectric element is connected to a feed-back circuit and resonating at its resonance frequency until it comes into contact with a material, when a frequency shift can be observed. The force sensor is used to measure the applied force between the sensor and the material. These two parameters are combined into a third, called the stiffness parameter, which is important for stiffness evaluation. For measurements on objects with different geometries, the vertical translation stage can be aimed at a platform for flat objects or a fixture for spherical objects. The vertical translation stage is mounted on a manual rotational stage with which the contact angle between the sensor and the measured surface can be adjusted. The contact angles covered are between 0° and 35° from a line perpendicular to the surface of the measured object. The measured objects used were made from silicones of different stiffness and in the shape of flat discs and spheres. The indentation velocity of the sensor can be set at 1 mm/s to 5 mm/s. In the three papers that are the base for this licentiate thesis, we have investigated the dependence of the frequency shift, the applied force and the stiffness parameter on the contact angle, and the indentation velocity at different impression depths. The maximum error for the measurement system has also been determined.
The results of the measurements indicate that great care must be taken when aiming the sensor against the surface of the point where the measurements are to be performed. Deviations in contact angle of more than iv±10° from a line perpendicular to the surface will result in an underestimation of the frequency shift, meaning that the tissue will be regarded as stiffer than it really is. This result is important as the flat silicone models have a very even surface, which makes a controlled contact angle possible. Biological tissue can have a rough and uneven surface, which can lead to unintentional deviations in the contact angle. The magnitude of the stiffness parameter is favoured by a high indentation velocity compared to a low.
The evaluation of this measurement system has shown that it is possible to distinguish between soft and stiff silicone models, which have been used in this initial phase of the study. A new feature in this measurement system is the fixture that makes measurements on spherical objects possible and the possibility to vary the angle of contact. This is promising for future studies and measurements on whole prostate in vitro. A future application for this measurement system is to aid surgeons performing radical prostatectomy in the search for tumour tissue on the capsule of the prostate, as the presence of tumour tissue can indicate that the cancer has spread to the surrounding tissue.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University , 2012. , 32 p.
Resonance Sensor Lab, ISSN 1653-6789 ; 5
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60818ISBN: 978-91-7459-477-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-60818DiVA: diva2:563418
2012-09-21, Humanisthuset B204, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00
Lindahl, Olof A, Professor
Andersson, BrittJalkanen, Ville, PhD
List of papers