Transition metal-catalysed hydrogen transfer processes for C-C and C-N bond formation: Synthetic studies and mechanistic investigations
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
This thesis focusses on synthetic studies and mechanistic investigations into reactions involving hydrogen-transfer processes.
In the first part, the development of an efficient method for the synthesis of β-hydroxy ketones (aldols) and β-amino ketones (Mannich products) from allylic alcohols and aldehydes is described. These reactions use Ru(η5-C5Ph5)(CO)2Cl as the catalyst. The reaction parameters were optimised in order to suppress the formation of undesired by-products. Neutral and mild reaction conditions enabled the synthesis of a variety of aldol products in up to 99% yield, with a good syn/anti ratio. The influence of the stereoelectronic properties of the catalyst on the reaction outcome was also studied. Based on the results obtained, a plausible reaction mechanism has been proposed, involving as the key steps the 1,4-addition of hydride to α,β-unsaturated ketones and the formation of ruthenium (Z)-enolates.
In the second part of this thesis, a ruthenium-catalysed tandem isomerisation/C-H activation reaction is presented. A number of ruthenium complexes, phosphine ligands, and additives were evaluated in order to establish the optimal reaction conditions. It was found that the use of a stable ruthenium catalyst, Ru(PPh3)3Cl2, together with PtBu3 and HCO2Na resulted in an efficient tandem transformation. Using this procedure, a variety of ortho-alkylated ketones were obtained in excellent yields. Moreover, homoallylic alcohols could also be used as starting materials for the reaction, which further expands the substrate scope. Mechanistic investigations into the isomerisation part of the process were carried out.
The last project described in the thesis deals with the design and preparation of novel bifunctional iridium complexes containing an N-(2-hydroxy-isobutyl)-N-Heterocyclic carbene ligand. These complexes were used as catalysts to alkylate amines using alcohols as latent electrophiles. The catalytic system developed here was found to be one of the most active systems reported to date, allowing the reaction to be performed at temperatures as low as 50 °C for the first time. A broad substrate scope was examined. Combined experimental and theoretical studies into the reaction mechanism are consistent with a metal-ligand bifunctional activity of the new catalyst.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Organic Chemistry, Stockholm University , 2012. , 90 p.
hydrogen transfer, catalysis, transition metal
Research subject Organic Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-81596ISBN: 978-91-7447-595-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-81596DiVA: diva2:562713
2012-11-30, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Albrecht, Martin, Professor
Martin-Matute, Belen, Professor
List of papers