Iodine Isotopes (129I and 127I) in the Baltic Sea : Tracer applications & environmental impact
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
129I is a radioactive isotope (T1/2= 15.7 million years) produced through natural and anthropogenic pathways, but the anthropogenic production is presently dominating the Earth’s surface environments. Sparse data from previous investigations in the Baltic Sea clearly indicated the occurrence of 129I at levels 3-4 orders higher than natural pre-atomic era (before 1940) without comprehensive evaluation of distribution and inventory. In this thesis extensive data on the distribution and inventory of iodine isotopes, 129I and 127I, and their species in waters of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak are presented and used for estimation of water masses exchange and impact on the environment. To fulfill these objectives seawater samples were collected in August 2006 and April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat and Skagerrak as well as in December 2009 in the Bothnian Sea. After elaborative chemical separation of total iodine and iodine species, the analysis was performed using ICP-MS for 127I and AMS for 129I. The results reveal considerable differences in 129I concentration in terms of spatial and temporal variability and expose relatively high concentrations in the deep waters. Inventory estimates show higher amounts of 129I in August 2006 (24.2 ±15.4 kg) than in April 2007 (14.4± 8.3 kg) within the southern and central Baltic Proper, whereas almost a constant inventory is found in the Kattegat Basin. Relatively high 127I-/127IO3- and 129I-/129IO3- values in water of the Baltic Proper suggest effective reduction of iodate at a maximum rate of 8×10-7 (127IO3-) and 6×10-14 (129IO3-) (g/m3.day). The combination of 129I and 127I as tracers of water circulation in the Baltic Sea suggest that upwelling deep basinal water occurs into the surface along the Gotland deep and intrusion of North Atlantic water into southern Baltic. Furthermore, 129I-based model inventory reveals inflow of 330 km3/y (230-450 km3/y) water from the Kattegat into the Baltic Proper. Water exchange between the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea and vice versa is estimated at 980 km3/y (600-1400 km3/y) and 1180 km3/y (780-1600 km3/y) respectively. Finally, an environmental assessment of radioactivity associated with 129I burden in the Baltic Sea region is discussed.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 58 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 980
radioactive 129I, stable 127I, AMS, iodine species, nuclear reprocessing facilities, tracers, Baltic Sea, circulation, water exchange, environmental impact
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182357ISBN: 978-91-554-8494-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-182357DiVA: diva2:559600
2012-11-23, Axel Hambergsalen, Villvägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
List of papers