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Iodine Isotopes (129I and 127I) in the Baltic Sea  : Tracer applications & environmental impact
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

129I is a radioactive isotope (T1/2= 15.7 million years) produced through natural and anthropogenic pathways, but the anthropogenic production is presently dominating the Earth’s surface environments. Sparse data from previous investigations in the Baltic Sea clearly indicated the occurrence of 129I at levels 3-4 orders higher than natural pre-atomic era (before 1940) without comprehensive evaluation of distribution and inventory. In this thesis extensive data on the distribution and inventory of iodine isotopes, 129I and 127I, and their species in waters of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak are presented and used for estimation of water masses exchange and impact on the environment.  To fulfill these objectives seawater samples were collected in August 2006 and April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat and Skagerrak as well as in December 2009 in the Bothnian Sea. After elaborative chemical separation of total iodine and iodine species, the analysis was performed using ICP-MS for 127I and AMS for 129I. The results reveal considerable differences in 129I concentration in terms of spatial and temporal variability and expose relatively high concentrations in the deep waters. Inventory estimates show higher amounts of 129I in August 2006 (24.2 ±15.4 kg) than in April 2007 (14.4± 8.3 kg) within the southern and central Baltic Proper, whereas almost a constant inventory is found in the Kattegat Basin. Relatively high 127I-/127IO3- and 129I-/129IO3- values in water of the Baltic Proper suggest effective reduction of iodate at a maximum rate of  8×10-7 (127IO3-) and 6×10-14 (129IO3-) (g/m3.day). The combination of 129I and 127I as tracers of water circulation in the Baltic Sea suggest that upwelling deep basinal water occurs into the surface along the Gotland deep and intrusion of North Atlantic water into southern Baltic. Furthermore, 129I-based model inventory reveals inflow of 330 km3/y (230-450 km3/y) water from the Kattegat into the Baltic Proper. Water exchange between the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea and vice versa is estimated at 980 km3/y (600-1400 km3/y) and 1180 km3/y (780-1600 km3/y) respectively. Finally, an environmental assessment of radioactivity associated with 129I burden in the Baltic Sea region is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 58 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 980
Keyword [en]
radioactive 129I, stable 127I, AMS, iodine species, nuclear reprocessing facilities, tracers, Baltic Sea, circulation, water exchange, environmental impact
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182357ISBN: 978-91-554-8494-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-182357DiVA: diva2:559600
Public defence
2012-11-23, Axel Hambergsalen, Villvägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-31 Created: 2012-10-09 Last updated: 2013-01-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Iodine Isotopes (I-129 and I-127) in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iodine Isotopes (I-129 and I-127) in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins
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2011 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 3, 903-909 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Radioactive anthropogenic pollution has raised concerns about the present and future environmental status of the semienclosed Baltic Sea. We here study the distribution and inventory of the anthropogenic radioactive I-129 in water depth profiles collected from 16 sites in August 2006 and 19 sites in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper and related Kattegat and Skagerrak basins. The results reveal considerable differences of I-129 concentration in terms Of spatial and temporal variability and expose relatively high concentrations in the deep waters. Variability in the concentration of I-127, stable natural isotope of iodine, seems to follow changes in the seawater salinity, but in oxygen-poor bottom waters sediment diagenetic release may contribute to the concentration of both isotopes in the water body. Inventory estimates show that I-129 in August 2006 (24.2 +/- 15.4 kg) is higher than that in April 2007 (14.4 +/- 8.3 kg) within the southern and central Baltic Proper whereas almost a constant load occurs in the Kattegat Basin. Calculated model inventory shows correspondence to empirical data and provides a guideline for future environmental assessment on the impact of I-129 load in the studied region.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-149038 (URN)10.1021/es102837p (DOI)000286577100011 ()
Available from: 2011-03-15 Created: 2011-03-15 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2.
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3. Water masses characteristics in the Baltic Proper revealed through iodine isotopes
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182354 (URN)
Available from: 2012-10-09 Created: 2012-10-09 Last updated: 2013-01-23
4. 129I in the Baltic Sea and its application for estimation of water exchange and environmental impact
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182355 (URN)
Available from: 2012-10-09 Created: 2012-10-09 Last updated: 2013-01-23
5. Depth profiles of I-129 species in the Bothnian Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depth profiles of I-129 species in the Bothnian Sea
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 295, no 2, 1459-1463 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Bothnian Sea which is located between Finland and Sweden represents an important source of fresh water to the Baltic Sea. We here present new data on the radioactive isotope I-129 species from water samples collected in December 2009 at different depths in the Bothnian Sea. Concentrations of I-129(-) (iodide) in the Bothnian Sea range from 14 x 10(8) to 32 x 10(8) atoms/L, while (IO3)-I-129 (-) (iodate) concentrations are relatively low and fluctuating at 1 x 10(8) atoms/L. For nutrients data determined in the same samples as I-129, significant correlations could be found between I-129(-) and total P, NO3-N, SiO3-Si, but rather poor with NH4-N. The correlations suggest comparable source pathway of I-129(-) and nutrient parameters, while the source of NH4-N may be different. The small amounts and negligible change of (IO3)-I-129 (-) indicate prevailing extensive reduction of iodate in the Baltic Sea.

Keyword
Radioactive iodine, Bothnian Sea, I-129, AMS, Speciation
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182356 (URN)10.1007/s10967-012-1923-7 (DOI)000313713300091 ()
Available from: 2012-10-09 Created: 2012-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
6. Iodide and iodate ((129)I and (127)I) in surface water of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iodide and iodate ((129)I and (127)I) in surface water of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak
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2011 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 412, 296-303 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the common incorporation of iodine in the biological cycle and occurrence of huge contamination of the radioactive isotope (129)I in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat, there is no data on chemical speciation of iodine in these waters. We here present first time data on iodine isotopes (129)I and (127)I species as iodide and iodate in surface seawater samples collected from 16 locations in August 2006 and 19 locations in April 2007 in the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat. After extensive separation methods, the isotopes concentrations were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique for the (129)I and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for (127)I. High concentrations of both isotopes species were found in the Skagerrak-Kattegat basins, whereas the values in the Baltic Proper are low for both species. The ratios of (129)I(-)/(129)IO(3)(-) and (127)I-/(127)IO(3)(-) significantly increase from south to central Baltic Sea, and iodide (both isotopes) appears as the predominant inorganic iodine species along the Baltic Sea. The results show insignificant change in (129)I and (127)I speciation and suggest that reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process. Additionally, the positive correlation between salinity and iodide and iodate (both isotopes) may reflect effective control of Skagerrak water mass on iodine distribution in surface water of the Baltic Sea.

Keyword
(129)I, (127)I, Baltic Sea speciation, AMS, ICP-MS
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167918 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.10.001 (DOI)000298534300034 ()
Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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