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The Macroinvertebrate Community in a Nature-like Fishway with Habitat Compensation Properties
Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nature-like fishways are often constructed to restore connectivity in streams exploited for hydropower. They also have the potential to compensate for important habitats that have been degraded or lost. The aim of this thesis was to improve knowledge of the concept of nature-like fishway design, with special focus on their habitat compensation potential. This was done by comparing a nature-like fishway with four different habitat types, termed the biocanal, to six nearby natural reference creeks. In paper I the macroinvertebrate colonization of the biocanal was studied and the community composition was compared to that of the natural reference creeks.

Furthermore, the potential for the biocanal to contain a diverse macroinvertebrate fauna was investigated. The results showed that the species composition of the benthic fauna in the biocanal was approaching that of the reference creeks and that the different habitat types in the biocanal contributed to the increased family diversity. In paper II the functional organization of the biocanal was studied using the functional feeding group approach. The results showed that after two years, the functional organization in the biocanal resembles that of the natural reference creeks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2012.
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2012:48
Keyword [en]
nature-like fishway, biodiversity, macroinvertebrates, functional feeding groups
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15116ISBN: 978-91-7063-455-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-15116DiVA: diva2:559280
Presentation
2012-12-20, 1B364, Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-12-03 Created: 2012-10-08 Last updated: 2012-12-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Macroinvertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway: The effects of habitat design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Macroinvertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway: The effects of habitat design
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nature-like fishways are designed to imitate the characteristics of natural streams, thereby providing passage and habitat for a variety of aquatic organisms. To develop the concept of nature-like design, a 500-meter long nature-like bypass channel, termed the biocanal, was constructed at the Eldforsen hydroelectric facility, Sweden. It included four habitat types; riffle, pool, floodplain and braided (i.e. with islands) habitats, each replicated three times.  The biocanal resembled a natural stream in terms of hydraulics, gradient, flow regime, substrate etc. and provided a range of habitats to potentially harbor a large biodiversity. Thus the biocanal had a much more varied instream environment than those of conventional fishways. To test the prediction that the biocanal had a positive effect on biodiversity, we compared the physical habitat and benthic fauna composition both among the four biocanal habitat types and with six natural reference streams. After two years 66.7% of the benthic fauna families found in the reference streams had colonized the biocanal. Families present in the reference streams, but not in the biocanal, were predominantly slow colonizers or taxa linked to riparian vegetation, which was scarce and in an early successional stage in the biocanal.

In the biocanal, pool and floodplain habitats contained the highest number of families, the highest family diversity (Shannon-Weaver) and the highest densities of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Since these habitats contained more families and had higher diversities than the riffle habitats which are typical of conventional nature-like fishways, we suggest that the construction of biocanals indeed possesses the potential for high biodiversity. 

Keyword
nature-like fishway, habitat, bypass channel, macroinvertebrate
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15430 (URN)
Available from: 2012-11-05 Created: 2012-11-05 Last updated: 2013-03-20Bibliographically approved
2. The functional organization of the macroinvertebrate community in a nature-like fishway with habitat compensation properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The functional organization of the macroinvertebrate community in a nature-like fishway with habitat compensation properties
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Habitat compensation in streams can be integrated in the construction of nature-like fishways, creating structures that both facilitate passage and provide habitat. Few existing nature-like fishways, however, have been designed to maximize the habitat function. In 2009 a nature-like fishway with habitat compensation properties, termed the biocanal, was constructed in Eldforsen, Sweden. The functional feeding group approach was used to investigate the functional organization of the benthic community in the biocanal two years after its construction. Samples were also collected from six natural creeks in the area to be used as references. Comparisons of functional feeding group ratios, acting as substitutes of ecosystem attributes, implied that both the biocanal and the reference creeks were heterotrophic systems enriched in suspended FPOM. The ratios also showed that the systems contained an abundance of stable substrates for filter feeders and scrapers. The study also showed that even though the benthic fauna community composition in the biocanal and in reference creeks in the area differ, all functional feeding groups found in the six reference creeks where present in the biocanal. We therefore believe that the ecological function of the biocanal is similar to that of the natural reference creeks in the area. 

Keyword
nature-like fishway, habitat compensation, macroinvertebrate, functional feeding groups
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-15431 (URN)
Available from: 2012-11-05 Created: 2012-11-05 Last updated: 2012-12-05Bibliographically approved

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