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Growth and characterization of graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2012 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Thermal annealing 4H-SiC(0001) substrates to produce epitaxial graphene on Si-terminated SiC was performed using five different procedures, i.e. direct and indirect current heating at different based pressures and a temperature of about 1300 . The aim is to study the effects of graphene growth under different conditions and also to produce large homogeneous graphene. To investigate the prepared samples, two surface analytical techniques, i.e. low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) have been used. LEEM was first used to observe the surface morphologies of the prepared samples. In combination with LEEM instrument, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) was used to verify the existence of graphene on SiC substrate. The number of graphene layer was determined by collecting electron reflectivity at different electron energies. The number of dips observed in the electron reflectivity curve corresponds to the number of graphene layer.

The experimental results obtained from LEEM and LEED have demonstrated that a film consisting of fairly large domains of 1 and 2 monolayer (ML) graphene was obtained by direct current heating of SiC under high vacuum (HV) condition with the based pressure of 10-6 Torr. A domain size in the range of up to about 5 to 10 μm have been observed. Meanwhile another graphene film prepared by the same method and the same temperature but under ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition with the based pressure of 10-10 Torr has much smaller domain size of 1 ML graphene compared to that grown under HV condition. We therefore suggested that the based pressure during the graphene growth has a strong influence on the morphology of graphene. This is because the Si evaporation rate is suppressed when heated in a high pressure environment, which normally leads to the improvement of the surface quality. The suppression of the Si evaporation rate has also been verified by a result obtained from the other sample directly heated under much higher based pressure, i.e. in an argon (Ar) environment of 1 atm.

In addition to LEEM and LEED, the existence of graphene on SiC substrate has also been verified by the PES measurement. The C1s spectrum of graphene sample grown on SiC(0001) substrate showed three components, i.e. bulk SiC, graphene (G) and the buffer layer (B) located at 283.7 eV, 284.5 eV and 285.1 eV, respectively. The intensity ratios of the three components in the C1s spectrum were also used to estimate the number of graphene layer. The estimated number of graphene layer corresponds to the result obtained from LEEM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 36 p.
Keyword [en]
Epitaxial graphene, SiC, LEEM, LEED, PES
National Category
Materials Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-82014ISRN: LITH-IFM-A-EX--12/2672--SEOAI: diva2:557434
Subject / course
Material Physics
Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics
Available from: 2012-09-28 Created: 2012-09-27 Last updated: 2012-09-28Bibliographically approved

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