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Modeling, Control and Optimization of theTransient Torque Response in DownsizedTurbocharged Spark Ignited Engines
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasing demands for lower carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption drive technological developments for car manufacturers. One trend that has shown success for reducing fuel consumption in spark ignited engines is downsizing, where the engine size is reduced to save fuel and a turbocharger is added to maintain the power output. A drawback of this concept is the slower torque response of a turbocharged engine. Recent hardware improvements have facilitated the use of variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) for spark ignited engines, which can improve the transient torque response. This thesis addresses the transient torque response through three papers.

Paper 1 presents the optimal control of the valve timing and VGT for a fast torque response. Optimal open-loop control signals are found by maximizing the torque integral for a 1-d simulation model. From the optimization it is found that keeping the ratio between exhaust and intake pressure at a constant level gives a fast torque response. This can be achieved by feedback control using vgt actuation. The optimal valve timing differs very little from a fuel consumption optimal control that uses large overlap. Evaluation on an engine test bench shows improved torque response over the whole low engine speed range.

In Paper 2, model based, nonlinear feedback controllers for the exhaust pressure are presented. First, the dynamic relation between requested VGT position and exhaust pressure is modeled. This model contains an estimation of the on-engine turbine flow map. Using this model, a controller based on inverting the input-output relation is designed. Simulations and measurements on the engine show that the controller handles the strong nonlinear characteristic of the system, maintaining both stability and performance over the engine’s operating range.

Paper 3 considers the dependence of the valve timing for the cylinder gas exchange process and presents a torque model. A data-based modeling approach is used to find regressors, based on valve timing and pressures, that can describe the volumetric efficiency for several engine speeds. Utilizing both 1-d simulations and measurements, a model describing scavenging is found. These two models combine to give an accurate estimation of the in-cylinder lambda, which is shown to improve the torque estimation. The models are validated on torque transients, showing good agreement with the measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , xi, 61 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2012:031
Keyword [en]
Engine modeling, Engine control, Transient torque response, Downsizing, Transient optimization
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102743ISBN: 978-91-7501-441-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-102743DiVA: diva2:557425
Public defence
2012-10-19, F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120928

Available from: 2012-09-28 Created: 2012-09-24 Last updated: 2013-04-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Optimal Air Path Control during Load Transients on an SI Engine with VGT and VVT
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Air Path Control during Load Transients on an SI Engine with VGT and VVT
(English)In: IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, ISSN 1063-6536, E-ISSN 1558-0865Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the aim to reduce fuel consumption has been the main goal forthe automotive industry. Downsizing is a promising way to achieve this whichhas shown success. Downsized, turbocharged engines do however suffer from slowtransient torque response. This slow response is due to the slow dynamics of theturbocharger. This paper investigates the torque response of an si engine with vvtand vvt. Optimal open-loop trajectories for the overlap and the vgt position for afast transient response are found. This optimization is based on a one-dimensionalsimulation model. Based on this optimization, a generic feedback strategy forcontrolling the vgt is found. This strategy is implemented and evaluated on anengine and shows good performance.

National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102843 (URN)
Note

QS 2012

Available from: 2012-09-26 Created: 2012-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Exhaust pressure modeling and control on an si engine with vgt
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exhaust pressure modeling and control on an si engine with vgt
2014 (English)In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 25, no 1, 26-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For a turbocharged si engine, the exhaust pressure is of high importance for the gas exchange process as well as for the turbine power. It is therefore important to control the exhaust pressure accurately during load transients. This paper presents and evaluates a nonlinear controller for the exhaust pressure in an si engine equipped with a variable geometry turbine. A mapping from the states, inputs, and disturbances to future outputs is formed, and inverting the input/output relation in this mapping gives a control law. The controller, which can be tuned as a pi controller, utilizes a model for the turbine mass flow capturing the flow characteristics over the operating range. This controller is compared to a linear pi controller and a feedback linearization controller. Evaluation is performed using both simulations and measurements on a real engine, showing the superior behavior of the nonlinear controllers over the linear controller for this problem. Moreover, the presented controller achieves almost as good performance as a feedback linearization controller, but with easier tuning and implementation.

Keyword
Exhaust pressure, Model inversion, Nonlinear control, Nonlinear modeling, Variable geometry turbine
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102844 (URN)10.1016/j.conengprac.2013.11.021 (DOI)000332906400003 ()2-s2.0-84893861343 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140305. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2012-09-26 Created: 2012-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Modeling the effect of variable cam phasing on volumetric efficiency, scavenging and torque generation in SI engines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling the effect of variable cam phasing on volumetric efficiency, scavenging and torque generation in SI engines
(English)In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

In a mean value engine model, the mass flow of air through thecylinders is determined by the air density, the engine speed, and thevolumetric efficiency. For modern engines the volumetric efficiency model mustalso account for the effect of variable valve timings. In this work the effect of the valve overlap is considered. Thevalve overlap is the number of crank angle degrees that both valvesare open simultaneously. When the valve overlap is significant,there may be fresh air that flows directly through the exhaustvalve, known as scavenging, which affects the torque. Steady-state torque measurements are used to estimate the amount of scavenging. The volumetric efficiency and scavenging models derived in the paper are shown toimprove the predictions of the engine torque significantly, alsounder transient conditions.

National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102842 (URN)
Note

QS 2012

Available from: 2012-09-26 Created: 2012-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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Flärdh PhD Thesis(3813 kB)2633 downloads
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