Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Implementing Road Pricing: Standards, Institutions, Costs, and Public Acceptance
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Much has been researched and written about road pricing, and especially how it affects traffic flow, congestion, the environment, and social welfare in general. This doctoral thesis analyses the implementation of road user charges rather than its effects. The dissertation consists of five separate papers, each addressing a subset of the topic. The first paper sheds light on the costs to introduce congestion taxes in Stockholm, and describes how public opinion and political risk lead to a system design that in all likelihood was more expensive than necessary. In the second paper the European regulation on interoperability between road charging system is evaluated from a benefit/cost perspective, which is found to be overly ambitious. Paper three builds upon the second, and suggests a general model for how costs and benefits interact in the case of road charging interoperability. Inpaper four a potential solution is presented for how the practical problems related to enforcement of road charging in an international context or in countries with weak institutions. The fifth and final paper analyses the public opinion of road charges, and especially urban congestion charges, using a survey conducted simultaneously in three European cities.

Abstract [sv]

Mycket har forskats och skrivits kring vägavgifter, och framför allt hur de påverkar trafikströmmar, trängsel, miljö och samhällsnytta. Denna sammanläggningsavhandling analyserar införande av vägavgifter snarare än dess effekter. Avhandlingen består av fem uppsatser som var och en tar sig an en delmängd av området. Den första uppsatsen belyser kostnaderna för införande av trängselskatter i Stockholm, och beskriver hur opinion och politisk risk ledde till en systemdesign som troligen var mer kostsam än nödvändigt. I den andra uppsatsen utvärderas den europeiska lagstiftningen för interoperabilitet mellan vägavgiftssystem ifrån ett nytto/kostnads-perspektiv, och finner den alltför ambitiös. Uppsats tre bygger vidare på den andra och föreslår en generell modell för hur kostnader och nyttor samverkar avseende interoperabilitet mellan vägavgiftssystem. I uppsats fyra presenteras en möjlig lösning på hur de praktiska problemen med beivrande av vägavgifter i ett internationellt sammanhang eller i länder med svaga institutioner kan lösas. Den avslutande femte uppsatsenanalyserar allmänhetens attityder till vägavgifter, framför allt urbana trängselavgifter, med hjälp av en enkätundersökning som genomförts samtidigt i tre europeiska städer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , xxix p.
Series
Trita-TSC-PHD, 12:002
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102755ISBN: 978-91-85539-92-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-102755DiVA: diva2:556384
Public defence
2012-10-05, KTH, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120925

Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2013-04-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Costs and benefits of the European directive on road tolling interoperability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Costs and benefits of the European directive on road tolling interoperability
2013 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 30, 221-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pricing of road use in the form of tolls, congestion charges, kilometre tax and other similar schemes, is becoming increasingly common. Each toll road operator has so far decided on its own how to design and implement systems for collecting road user charges, causing a plethora of system and scheme designs. As a measure to reduce the drawbacks of such differences, the European Union has passed legislation aiming at making available interoperable road charging services, valid across all charging systems a vehicle might pass during a European journey. This legislation is setting the bar high, requiring that virtually every charging system in the Union be covered. We analyse the costs and benefits caused by this regulation, and if an adjusted regulation can improve these results. We conclude that the new legislation yields a social loss ranging from 100 to just above 500 million Euros annually. Policy suggestions to improve this result are also provided.

Keyword
Road user charging, Road pricing, Interoperability, Cost-benefit analysis, Harmonisation, Standards
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-77243 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2011.09.009 (DOI)000318387500016 ()
Note

QC 20130610

Available from: 2012-02-06 Created: 2012-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Revisiting the cost of the Stockholm congestion charging system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting the cost of the Stockholm congestion charging system
2011 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 6, 836-847 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In January 2006, a system for congestion charging was introduced in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The charging scheme was run in the form of a full-scale trial for seven months, after which it was deactivated, awaiting its evaluation and an advisory public referendum. Several parties, including representatives of the scientific community as well as media and special interest groups, have analysed and evaluated the system. A recurring theme in several of these analyses is that the cost to build and operate the system was excessive, compared to costs for other road charging installations.

This study revisits some of the key project participants and archive data, to provide a deeper understanding of what were the major cost drivers and whether lower cost can be achieved in future installations. The approach taken is to emphasise understanding of the particular circumstances rather than comparing aggregates with other seemingly similar systems. The main conclusions include the identification of a rational actor paying an insurance against unacceptable risk, the importance of the election cycle, and the interplay between risk, acceptance, performance, and cost. A conceptual model for this interaction is suggested.

Keyword
Congestion charging, Road pricing, Principal-agent, Mega project, Political economy, Acceptance
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25112 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2011.05.004 (DOI)000295147300007 ()2-s2.0-80051815396 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note
QC 20101008 Updated from manuscript to article in journal.Available from: 2010-10-08 Created: 2010-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Vertical separation as means to establish interoperability in road tolling in Europe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertical separation as means to establish interoperability in road tolling in Europe
2011 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 19, no 6, 1019-1032 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As more European roads become tolled by various means, an increasing share of road users become subject to more than one tolling scheme in their regular driving. This can be especially burdensome for long distance hauliers, who may pass several countries and tolled motorway systems during the course of 1 day. For this reason, a range of projects have been initiated attempting to increase the level of interoperability between tolling systems, many of which with only limited success. By analyzing current incentives, costs and benefits for toll operators and road users, we conclude firstly that the current level of interoperability is likely to be lower than socially optimal, and secondly that a direct regulation making the provision of interoperability mandatory is likely to be in excess of what is socially optimal. We argue that vertically separating the monopolistic toll operators could be a cost-efficient way to achieve a socially optimal level of interoperability as a equilibrium market outcome.

Keyword
Road tolling, Road user charging, Interoperability, EETS, Industrial organisation
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-45575 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2011.05.013 (DOI)000295663100007 ()2-s2.0-79959569814 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note
QC 20111107Available from: 2011-11-07 Created: 2011-10-31 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Enforcement of road pricing under weak institutions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enforcement of road pricing under weak institutions
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Congestion pricing has been successfully implemented in several cities in the industrialised world, including Singapore, London, Stockholm, and Milan. Those systems are reliant on an extensive institutional framework, including databases of vehicles and personal identities, electronic payment channels, and perhaps most importantly, a cost effective method for ex post debt collection. In a context where such institutional support is weak, e.g. a developing nation or a road network with a large share of international traffic, the existing framework is not fully applicable. This paper suggests a conceptual model for solving these challenges, based on the simple assumption that visiting vehicles will eventually come back to the system, and can be enforced on site when they do. As part of the concept, the vehicles themselves are used as collateral for any unpaid tolls, and the operator is actively selecting which vehicles to target when optimizing enforcement operations. For this conceptual model to function consistently, a few design requirements are identified, related to the technical construction as well as the charging rules and the underpinning legal framework. A formal model is proposed, and finally, the model is implemented in a simulation environment and is calibrated to get an order of magnitude estimate of the most important parameters and the potential benefits of the system.

Publisher
28 p.
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102933 (URN)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120928

Available from: 2012-09-28 Created: 2012-09-28 Last updated: 2013-04-11Bibliographically approved
5. Decisive factors for the acceptability of congestion pricing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decisive factors for the acceptability of congestion pricing
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
35 p.
Keyword
congestion pricing, acceptability
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-102936 (URN)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120928

Available from: 2012-09-28 Created: 2012-09-28 Last updated: 2013-04-11Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1621 kB)410 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1621 kBChecksum SHA-512
a2bb2c78c6df40e63d38044ae861597142a341fa38410c0ce2d8e05af3e591acd7c68f731bdc97e3670b0e8bb7100b035e811909f16aca3d1bba7814045cc990
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hamilton, Carl J.
By organisation
Centre for Transport Studies, CTS
Transport Systems and Logistics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 410 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 590 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf