Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Noise in the school environment: Memory and Annoyance
University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objectives.The general objectives of this dissertationwere to examine the effects of acute exposure to meaningfulirrelevant speech and road traffic noise on memory performance,and to explore annoyance responses to noise exposure in theschool environment for pupils and teachers in different agegroups.

Methods. The thesis comprises seven papers, representingdifferent methodological approaches: experiments, surveystudies and interviews. In the experiments, reported in PapersI-V, 288 pupils and teachers participated in the age groups,13-14 years (n=96), 18-20 years (n=96), 35-45 years (n=48) and55-65 years (n=48). The subjects were randomly assigned to oneof three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) roadtraffic noise, and (c) silence. The equivalent sound level inthe noise conditions was set to 66 dB(A). A test batteryreflecting episodic and semantic memory were used. The surveystudies, reported in Paper VI and VII, included 207 pupils(M=13.5) and 166 teachers (M=45.9). Two separate questionnairesmainly comprising items about annoyance, noise sensitivity andstress symptoms were administered. Paper VI presents results offocus group interviews (n=16) treating the main topics:disturbing sounds, emotions, ongoing activity, and suggestionsconcerning future changes. Results. The overall findings showedthat both noise sources affected episodic and semantic memoryto the same degree for all age groups. The results indicatedthat the similarity of semantic content between noise and thetask at hand was not the only suitable explanation model, sincea non-speech noise impaired memory as much as speech.

Resultsalso indicated that attention effects did notmediate the obtained noise effects and that the noise effectsdid not differ between age groups. Therefore, it seemedunlikely that different memory and attentional capacities stoodout as explanatory factors of the memory effects. Sinceperformances of both episodic and semantic memory tasks wereimpaired, the explanation based on level of access to long-termmemory was also ruled out. However, the episodic memory task,reading comprehension, stood out to be most impaired by noise,suggesting that complexity of the task to perform was ofimportance. For reading comprehension there was also adifferent noise pattern obtained. Participants performance wasin this task, more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speechthan by road traffic noise. This effect indicated thatmeaningful irrelevant speech might reduce the availablecognitive resources necessary for learning the text. Theannoyance models derived from the survey studies indicated thatsensitivity acted as a mediator between hearing status andannoyance, with stress symptoms as an outcome. Whetherannoyance arises or not was also determined by control andpredictability of the noise. In the interviews a differentannoyance pattern was found, in that stress symptoms appearedto be a determinant of annoyance. To be involved, respected,take own responsibility and respect others were suggestions onhow to change the environment to become more silent.

Conclusions.For both pupils and teachers acute exposureto meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noiseinfluenced both the achieving and providing of knowledge. Acommon annoyance pattern was also found for pupils andteachers, where individual and situational factors were ofimportance. To achieve a more silent school environment in thefuture, the pupils pointed out that the interaction betweenthemselves and their teachers was of importance.

Key words:Noise, meaningful irrelevant speech, roadtraffic noise, memory, age groups, school environment, pupils,teachers

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Byggvetenskap , 2004. , 59 p.
Keyword [en]
Noise, meaningful irrelevant speech, road traffic noise, memory, age group, school environment, pupils, teachers
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-12862ISBN: 91-7283-718-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-12862DiVA: diva2:552005
Public defence
2004-04-23, 00:00
Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-12 Last updated: 2012-09-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on different memory systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on different memory systems
2003 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 44, no 1, 13-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To explore why noise has reliable effects on delayed recall in a certain text-reading task, this episodic memory task was employed with other memory tests in a study of road traffic noise and meaningful but irrelevant speech. Context-dependent memory was tested and self-reports of affect were taken. Participants were 96 high school students. The results showed that both road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech impaired recall of the text. Retrieval in noise from semantic memory was also impaired. Attention was impaired by both noise sources, but attention did not mediate the noise effects on episodic memory. Recognition was not affected by noise. Context-dependent memory was Dot shown. The lack of mediation by attention, and road traffic noise being as harmful as meaningful irrelevant speech, are discussed in relation to where in the input/storing/output sequence noise has its effect and what the distinctive feature of the disturbing noise is.

Keyword
Adolescent, Adult, Analysis of Variance, Attention/physiology, Automobiles/*statistics & numerical data, Female, Humans, Male, Memory/*physiology, Noise; Transportation/*statistics & numerical data, Reading, Recognition (Psychology)/physiology, Semantics, Speech/*physiology, Students/psychology, Task Performance and Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-2889 (URN)10.1111/1467-9450.00316 (DOI)000180929400003 ()12602999 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-06-16 Created: 2008-06-16 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. The effects of noise and gender on children’s episodic and semantic memory.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of noise and gender on children’s episodic and semantic memory.
2004 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 5, 407-416 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main objectives in the present study were to examine meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise effects on episodic and semantic memory, and to evaluate whether gender differences in memory performance interact with noise. A total of 96 subjects, aged 13–14 years (n= 16 boys and 16 girls in each of three groups), were randomly assigned to a silent or two noise conditions. Noise effects found were restricted to impairments from meaningful irrelevant speech on recognition and cued recall of a text in episodic memory and of word comprehension in semantic memory. The obtained noise effect suggests that the meaning of the speech were processed semantically by the pupils, which reduced their ability to comprehend a text that also involved processing of meaning. Meaningful irrelevant speech was also assumed to cause a poorer access to the knowledge base in semantic memory. Girls outperformed boys in episodic and semantic memory materials, but these differences did not interact with noise.

Keyword
meaningful irrelevant speech, road traffic noise, episodic and semantic memory, gender, children
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-2907 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2004.00422.x (DOI)15535809 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-05-30 Created: 2008-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on teachers' attention, episodic and semantic memory.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on teachers' attention, episodic and semantic memory.
2004 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 5, 393-405 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on attention, episodic and semantic memory, and also to examine whether the noise effects were age-dependent. A total of 96 male and female teachers in the age range of 35-45 and 55-65 years were randomly assigned to a silent or the two noise conditions. Noise effects found in episodic memory were limited to a meaningful text, where cued recall contrary to expectations was equally impaired by the two types of noise. However, meaningful irrelevant speech also deteriorated recognition of the text, whereas road traffic noise caused no decrement. Retrieval from two word fluency tests in semantic memory showed strong effects of noise exposure, one affected by meaningful irrelevant speech and the other by road traffic noise. The results implied that both acoustic variation and the semantic interference could be of importance for noise impairments. The expected age-dependent noise effects did not show up.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-2905 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2004.00421.x (DOI)000224906700005 ()
Available from: 2008-05-30 Created: 2008-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Strength of noise effects on memory as a function of noise source and age.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strength of noise effects on memory as a function of noise source and age.
2005 (English)In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 27, 11-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objectives in this paper were to analyse noise effects on episodic and semantic memory performance in different age groups, and to see whether age interacted with noise in their effects on memory. Data were taken from three separate previous experiments, that were performed with the same design, procedure and dependent measures with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45 and 55-65 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) road traffic noise, and (c) quiet. The results showed effects of both noise sources on a majority of the dependent measures, both when taken alone and aggregated according to the nature of the material to be memorised. However, the noise effects for episodic memory tasks were stronger than for semantic memory tasks. Further, in the reading comprehension task, cued recall and recognition were more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speech than by road traffic noise. Contrary to predictions, there was no interaction between noise and age group, indicating that the obtained noise effects were not related to the capacity to perform the task. The results from the three experiments taken together throw more light on the relative effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on memory performance in different age groups.

Keyword
Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Female, Humans, Male, Memory Disorders/*etiology, Middle Aged, Noise/*adverse effects, Semantics, Speech
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-2888 (URN)10.4103/1463-1741.31636 (DOI)16105246 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-11-15 Created: 2007-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Structural equation models of memory performance across noise and age
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural equation models of memory performance across noise and age
2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 6, 449-460 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Competing models of declarative memory were tested with structural equation models to analyze whether a second-order latent variable structure for episodic and semantic memory was invariant across age groups and across noise exposure conditions. Data were taken from three previous experimental noise studies that were performed with the same design, procedure, and dependent measures, and with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45, and 55-65 years). Two noise conditions, road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech, were compared to a quiet control group. The structural models put to the test were taken from Nyberg et al. (2003), which employed several memory tests that were the same as ours and studied age-groups that partly overlapped with our groups. In addition we also varied noise exposure conditions. Our analyses replicated and supported the second-order semantic-episodic memory models in Nyberg et al. (2003). The latent variable structures were invariant across age groups, with the exception of our youngest group, which by itself showed a less clear latent structure. The obtained structures were also invariant across noise exposure conditions. We also noted that our text memory items, which did not have a counterpart in the study by Nyberg et al. (2003), tend to form a separate latent variable loading on episodic memory.

Keyword
Noise, irrelevant speech, memory, age groups
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-2376 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00556.x (DOI)000242725900002 ()2-s2.0-33751085858 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2007-03-01 Created: 2007-03-01 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. Factors affecting pupils’ noise annoyance in schools: The building and testing of models
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors affecting pupils’ noise annoyance in schools: The building and testing of models
2004 (English)In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 36, no 2, 207-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports two studies intended to develop and assess conceptual models of how different factors mediate and moderate the annoyance reaction in school environments. In the first, a survey of 207 pupils was conducted where assumptions about mediators and moderators were formulated and tested. In the best model, general sensitivity and adaptation led to a higher degree of annoyance causing stress symptoms. In the second study, focus group interviews with 16 pupils were performed to set up a model of mediating and moderating factors from pupils' statements in the formation of annoyance. The objective was also to get their opinions about ways to improve the sound environment in school. The interviews indicated a serial arrangement in which stress symptoms and distraction mediated between chatter and disturbance. Thus, the two studies suggested different models for the prediction of the annoyance reaction. The pupils' views about how to improve the school sound environment are discussed in the framework of an empowerment model.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-2906 (URN)10.1177/0013916503256644 (DOI)000189148400003 ()
Available from: 2007-11-15 Created: 2007-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
7. Pupils and teachers response structures of noise annoyance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pupils and teachers response structures of noise annoyance
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-12879 (URN)
Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2017-08-21Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2964 kB)429 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2964 kBChecksum SHA-512
2445f7b487659b17b4e7a56948396e20bde50667af28730dc4c5b6cd101f0dc3bf50fdd5f8769e1e86abd674c49cbe91dd7ccedbcfdd28d9da74e866ab13ff43
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Boman, Eva
By organisation
Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö
Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 429 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 567 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf