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On Reliable Real Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. (Wireless Communications)
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the industrial automation, Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) have been increasingly applied due to a great number of benefits such as convenient installation, flexible deployment and cost efficiency. Compared with conventional wireless systems, IWSNs have more stringent requirements communication reliability and real time performance. However, IWSNs are frequently deployed in a hash industrial environment with electromagnetic disturbances, moving objects and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication. Because of the vulnerability of wireless signal, IWSNs are under high risk oftransmission failures, which may result in missing or delaying of process orcontrol data. For industrial automation, missing the process or control deadlineis intolerable, which may terminate industrial application and finally result in economic loss and safety problems. From hierarchy point of view, the high communication reliability and low communication latency can be achieved from different network layers. OnMAC layer, existing protocols in IWSNs only provide automatic repeat request (ARQ) to improve reliability at the cost of real time performance. Analternative method is to apply Forward Error Correction (FEC) mechanism on MAC layer to provide more reliable transmissions and reduce acknowledgement messages by recovering error data. On network layer, routing protocolplays an important role in both communication reliability and latency. Traditionalrouting protocols in IWSNs are either hardly able to fulfill both of these requirements or overcomplicated.In this thesis, we initially explore the possibilities of introducing FEC intoIWSN under the requirements of the existing standard on MAC layer. Then we propose compatible and flexible FEC schemes on MAC layer for IWSNs without violating the standard format. Routing protocols based on flooding are proved to increase the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) by transmission diversity.We propose reliable and robust routing protocols with respect to high reliability and real time performance for IWSNs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2012.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 158
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15270ISBN: 978-91-7485-082-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-15270DiVA: diva2:551275
Presentation
2012-10-16, Gamma, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-09-10 Created: 2012-09-09 Last updated: 2012-10-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Towards Reliable and Lightweight Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Reliable and Lightweight Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we address the issues of timeliness and transmission reliability of existing industrial communication standards. We combine a Forward Error Correction coding schemeon the Medium Access Control layer with a lightweight routing protocol to form an IEEE 802.15.4-conformable solution, whichcan be implemented into already existing hardware without violating the standard. After laying the theoretical foundations,we conduct a performance evaluation of the proposed solution.The results show a substantial gain in reliability and reducedlatency, compared to the uncoded transmissions, as well ascommon Wireless Sensor Network routing protocols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Beijing, China: , 2012
National Category
Communication Systems Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15215 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2012.6300846 (DOI)2-s2.0-84868222720 (Scopus ID)978-146730311-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 10th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2012;Beijing;25 July 2012 through 27 July 2012
Note

This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible.

Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-03 Last updated: 2014-10-23Bibliographically approved
2. Adaptive Forward Error Correction for Best Effort Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive Forward Error Correction for Best Effort Wireless Sensor Networks
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (ICC), 2012, 7104-7109 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work we propose an Adaptive Forward Error Correction (AFEC) algorithm for best effort Wireless Sensor Networks. The switching model is described in terms of a finite-state Markov model and it is based on the channel behavior,observed via Packet Delivery Ratio in the recent past. We compare the performance of AFEC with static FEC, as well as uncoded transmissions. The results demonstrate a gain in PDR achieved by introducing FEC coding in uncoded IEEE 802.15.4 transmissions, as well as the advantages over static FEC schemes,namely increased throughput and reduced energy consumption.The proposed solution is IEEE 802.15.4-compliant and requires no additional feedback channels.

National Category
Communication Systems Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15219 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2012.6364798 (DOI)000312855707072 ()2-s2.0-84871987704 (Scopus ID)978-1-4577-2051-2 (ISBN)978-1-4577-2052-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2012; Ottawa; 10 June 2012 through 15 June 2012
Note

 This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible.

Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
3. A Flexible Error Correction Scheme for IEEE 802.15.4-based Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Flexible Error Correction Scheme for IEEE 802.15.4-based Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
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2012 (English)In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2012, 1172-1177 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Noise and interference make a substantial impacton wireless transmissions in industrial environments, resulting infrequent erroneous packet deliveries. Existing industrial communication standards adopt the IEEE 802.15.4 specification, which provides no means to correct the detected errors. We propose an IEEE 802.15.4-compliant Forward Error Correction-basedapproach that can be easily retrofitted into the standard withoutthe need for any kind of interaction with chip manufacturers orstandardization bodies. We evaluate the approach on link- and network-level scenarios. Improvement of reliability by using FEC can yield multiple benefits: a reduced number of retransmissions,and lower average latency, to name a few. With respect to the uncoded system, the proposed solution provides identical codinggain as the traditional FEC method, at a significantly lower computational load of decoding.

National Category
Communication Systems Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15207 (URN)10.1109/ISIE.2012.6237255 (DOI)2-s2.0-84864846391 (Scopus ID)978-146730158-9 (ISBN)
Conference
21st IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2012; Hangzhou;28 May 2012 through 31 May 2012
Note

"(c) 2012 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works"

Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-03 Last updated: 2014-01-10Bibliographically approved
4. Reliable RSS-based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliable RSS-based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2012 (English)In: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society: Proceeding, 2012, 3231-3237 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

High reliability and real-time performance are main research challenges in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs). Existing routing protocols applied in IWSNs are either overcomplicated or fail to fulfill the stringent requirements. In this paper, we propose a reliable and flexible Received Signal Strength-based routing scheme. Our proposed solution can achieve a seamless transition in the event of topology change and can be applied in different industrial environments. The simulation results show that our solution outperforms conventional routing protocols in both reliability and latency. Furthermore, the result also proves that the changes of the network topology have no impact on data transmissions of other nodes by our scheme, whereas conventional routing protocols are shown to fail to recover the network in a short time. Finally, due to dynamic weighting mechanism, the proposed scheme is verified to achieve significantly higher reliability in scenarios with obstacles and avoid installation troubles, compared to location-based flooding scheme. Thus, our proposed scheme is considered to be more suitable for IWSNs than other routing protocols.

National Category
Communication Systems Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15220 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2012.6389380 (DOI)000316962903033 ()2-s2.0-84872905727 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-2421-2 (ISBN)
Conference
38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2012, 25 October 2012 through 28 October 2012, Montreal, QC
Note

This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible

Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
5. Reliable and Low Latency Transmission in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliable and Low Latency Transmission in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2011 (English)In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 5, 866-873 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The major advantages with Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) in process automation are cable cost reduction, enhanced flexibility and enabling new emerging applications such as wireless control. However, transmission over the wireless channel is prone to noise and interference which causes packets to be erroneous received at the receiver node. To improve the link reliability in lossy channels, error correcting codes are commonly used. In this paper we discuss the use of forward error correction (FEC) codes in IWSN in order not only to improve the link reliability but also to reduce the number of retransmissions in harsh industrial environments. We propose a FEC scheme suitable for MAC level protection where the packet is divided into groups and encoded using systematic FEC codes. We have implemented different FEC codes in a typical IWSN chip to evaluate memory consumption and to ensure that we are not violating the strict timing rules for acknowledgment. Our results show that some FEC codes are suitable to be implemented in a typical IWSN node while several fails due to large memory footprint or to long encoding and decoding time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Niagara Falls, Canada: , 2011
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13623 (URN)10.1016/j.procs.2011.07.120 (DOI)2-s2.0-84856426250 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The First International Workshop on Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCS)
Available from: 2012-09-06 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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