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Holdningskampen 1940 - 1942 och dess fortsättning: Med betoning på  kyrkans roll som sammanhållande faktor under ockupationen av Norge
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
2012 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Holdingskampen 1940-1942 and its Continuation : With Emphasis on the role of the Church as a Joining Factor During the German Occupation of Norway (English)
Abstract [en]

During the period of occupation of Norway between the years 1940-1945 the National Lutheran Church took the responsibility of supporting the Norweigans in their ideological battle against the Nazis. This was a period named Holdningskampen in Norwegian history. One person to remember was Eivind Berggrav, bishop in Oslo diocese. He was the one responsible for the theological document of importance Kirkens Grunn that became important as a document against the Nazis and the small percentage of Christians that related to the naziinspired-church. Berggrav was also one of the founders of Den Midlertidlige Kirkeledelsen, the organisation responsible for the non-nazified churches. During Easter 1942 there was a division between the national church department and the churches. The outcome was that almost all priests left their offices because they did not want to be part of a Nazi-friendly system. The German-inspired government did their best to keep the churches going with the help of new politically correct priests and bishops. However, people did not accept them and they mostly had to talk for empty rows. The attention was instead given to the priests who marked their standpoint against the Nazis and for the freedom of the people and their country. They became the good examples that helped many Norwegians to keep their courage during a period of tribulation in the history of the country. The purpose is to analyze how and why the support became so important. By using letters from the bishop’s office in Tromsö, literature written about these subjects and local sources I will try to answer the following questions:

  • What difference made the Church for Holdningskampen and the following years and what response did the people give to this standpoint?
  • In what way did the Church support cooperation?
  • How was this perceived by people in general?
  • How did the Church support those who did not sympathize with the party Nasjonal Samling and the occupying power?
  • What became the response from the people and the authorities?

The importance of the local priests cannot be underestimated. Their resistance against the Nazis had an important role in the local community during a period of great turmoil and uncertainty in Norway. While their government and King had escaped to London, the Norwegian Church remained in the country. The Nazi-inspired church tried to get the people’s attention but very few listened. Because of the many undeviating priests and church leaders all over the country the locals remained hopeful and resistant, in spite of the Nazi-government’s threats. The interaction between the locals and the church gave them courage. Together they were made strong. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. , 61 p.
Keyword [en]
2nd world war, The resistance movement of Norway, The church in occupied Norway
Keyword [sv]
Kyrkokampen, Andra världskriget, Ockupation av Norge, motståndsrörelse
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-21588OAI: diva2:550979
Subject / course
Humanities, Theology
Available from: 2012-09-12 Created: 2012-09-09 Last updated: 2012-09-12Bibliographically approved

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