Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE credits
The Royal Seaport project, which is a project in the Clinton Climate Initiative, develops a new, sustainable city area in Stockholm and aims to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, using pre- and post load shifting methods to reduce the peak electricity load. The Active House, that is one work package in the Royal Seaport project, is a residential building that is equipped with systems for automated demand response, such as smart appliances and electricity storage, and also local photovoltaic power and charging poles for electric vehicles.
The thesis investigates if pre- and post shifting electricity load will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and electricity cost for the residents in the Active House. The greenhouse gas emissions are investigated for three Clinton Climate Initiative cities, Stockholm, London and San Francisco to further calculate the pre- and post shifting impacts of greenhouse gas emissions and electricity cost.
A simulation tool based on statistics of the power systems is developed, to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions from electricity production and the simulator is used to solve the research questions in the thesis. The simulator calculates an hourly greenhouse gas intensity distribution during the day and the results are used to observe differences between seasons and countries. The electricity loads of the households in the Active House are also investigated to determine the peak electricity loads to be able to dimension the photovoltaic power system and electricity storage.
Some of the most important results and conclusions in the thesis are:
The relationship between the greenhouse gas emissions and the electricity production determined, in most cases the greenhouse gas intensity distribution has a similar shape as the consumption and electricity price.
The photovoltaic power system will be able to provide 30 % of the fixed building electricity load. The electricity storage could be charged during night, when the greenhouse gas intensity is low, or when the photovoltaic power system generates surplus electricity that otherwise would be given away to the utility grid.
The dimensions of the electricity storage are cycled one time during the day and calculated to be 205 kWh to be able to pre shift an electricity load of 114 kWh from the electricity peak in the afternoon. The electricity storage are able to reduce the peak power with 40 kWh/h, electricity cost with up to 137 SEK and the greenhouse gas emissions with up to 13 kg CO2 depending on season and country.
The electricity storage is not profitable in an economical point of view today, because of life time of the electricity storage and the electricity price today but mostly on the high investments cost. The cost of reducing the greenhouse gas intensity is between 8-55 SEK/ kg CO2 in average during a year, depending on season and country. The investment cost of electricity storage will be reduced in the future and in 3 years it could be profitable with electricity storage in some countries.
Further investigations about the impact of greenhouse gas emissions and electricity cost for smart appliances and electrical vehicles have also been done in this thesis.
2011. , 80 p.