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Ethnocultural versus Basic Empathy: Same or Different?
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
(Stockholms universitet)
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4753-6745
2011 (English)In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 2, no 9, 925-930 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concept of ethnocultural empathy has been put forward as a variable that could explain tolerance between individuals and groups of different ethnic and cultural background. However, it is not clear if ethnocultural em-pathy is distinct from basic empathy. In this study we investigated the association between basic empathy, as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983) and ethnocultural empathy, as measured by the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (Wang et al., 2003). We also explored the question of whether a set of back-ground variables would predict the two forms of empathy. We investigated if there were different predictors of ethnocultural and basic empathy, and if the two constructs are distinct. Results showed that the two forms of empathy were correlated and that largely similar predictors were found for the two constructs. A confirmatory factor analysis failed to confirm two separate constructs. Implications of the findings for the measurement of empathy are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2011. Vol. 2, no 9, 925-930 p.
Keyword [en]
Empathy, Ethnocultural Empathy, Culture, Contact Hypothesis
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80781DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29139OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-80781DiVA: diva2:548227
Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07
In thesis
1. Ethnocultural Empathy: Measurement, psychometric properties, and differences between students in health care education programmes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnocultural Empathy: Measurement, psychometric properties, and differences between students in health care education programmes
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Etnokulturell empati : Mätning, psykometrisk egenskap, och skillnader mellan studenter på hälsovårdutbildningsprogram
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to investigate empathy for persons from ethnical groups different than one’s own, an ability called ethnocultural empathy. A scale measuring ethnocultural empathy was translated and validated for a Swedish context and tested in a student sample, a majority of which were healthcare students. Three studies were performed. In study I, the validity and reliability of a Swedish translation of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE) was investigated (N=326). The purpose of study II was to investigate the association between basic empathy as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983) and ethnocultural empathy as measured by the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (Wang et al., 2003). In study III, differences in basic empathy as well as in ethnocultural empathy were explored in a sample of 365 undergraduate students at the beginning and end of four Master programmes in health care education (Medicine, Psychology, Nursing and Social Work). The main results from the present thesis indicate that the central tendency, distribution of scores, intercorrelations, and factor structure in the Swedish version of SEE were well-matched and mainly similar to the American version. A significant strong correlation between basic and ethnocultural empathy was found, suggesting that the two constructs overlap substantially. The results of study III revealed that students from all programmes in health care had fairly high scores on both empathy scales. There were, however, significant differences between the study programmes. Overall, the studies show that ethnocultural empathy is a measurable construct but that it overlaps with basic empathy and further testing of the construct is needed. Implications of the findings for the measurement of empathy are discussed.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att undersöka empati hos personer och grupper som har en annan etnisk bakgrund än den egna, en förmåga som kallas etnokulturell empati. Denna förmåga handlar om kunskap och acceptans av andra etniska individer och gruppers kulturella uttryck. Det amerikanska instrument som anses mäta etnokulturell empati översattes och validerades till svenska språk och förhållanden. Därefter testades instrumentet hos studenter på hälsovårdutbildningar i tre studier. I studie I undersöktes instrumentets validitet och reliabilitet i ett urval av 326 respondenter. I studie II undersöktes sambandet mellan grundempati, som anses mätas med instrumentet Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), och etnokulturell empati som anses mätas med Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE). Studie III undersökte skillnader i grundempati och etnokulturell empati hos 365 studenter inom fyra program (Läkare, psykolog, sjuksköterska och socionom) i början och i slutet av deras studier. De huvudsakliga fynden i denna avhandling visade att faktorstrukturen och inter-korrelationerna i den svenska versionen av SEE i stor utsträckning liknade den amerikanska versionen. Dock detta inte bekräftades i konformatoriska faktoranalysen (CFA). Resultatet i studie II visade på ett starkt samband mellan grundempati och etnokulturell empati, vilket tyder på att dessa två konstruktioner av empati kraftigt överlappar varandra. I studie III visade resultatet att alla studenter från hälsovårdsutbildningarna hade höga nivåer av grund- och etnokulturell empati. Emellertid fanns signifikanta skillnader mellan programmen. Psykolog- och socionomstudenter hade högre nivåer av både grund empati och etnokulturell empati. Det övergripande resultat från avhandlingen visade att det går att mäta etnokulturell empati, men den nuvarande konstruktionen överlappar med grund empati. Ytterligare studier behövs för att förbättra instrumentet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 50 + papers 1-3 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 505
Keyword
Ethnocultural empathy, factor analysis, health care, and culture, Etnokulturell empati, faktor analys, hälsovård, och kultur
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51944 (URN)978-91-7393-471-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-18, Eklundska salen (I: 101), Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-24 Created: 2009-11-24 Last updated: 2014-09-30Bibliographically approved

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