Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Thermally Induced Fracture Performance of Asphalt Mixtures
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A major distress mode in asphalt pavements is low temperature cracking, which results from the contraction and expansion of the asphalt pavement under extreme temperature changes. The potential for low temperature cracking is an interplay between the environment, the road structure and importantly the properties of the asphalt mixture. The thermal cracking performance of asphalt concrete mixtures can be evaluated by conducting thermal stress restrained specimen tests (TSRST) which is known to be correlated well with the fracture temperatures observed in the field. Although TSRST provides a good estimation of the field performance, it may be unrealistic to implement the obtained results in a design framework. On the other hand, recent studies showed Superpave indirect tension tests can be used to evaluate fracture performance (fatigue, moisture damage, low temperature cracking, etc.) of the asphalt concrete  mixtures. In addition, the obtained elastic and viscoelastic parameters from the Superpave IDT tests can be used as an input parameter to establish a design framework. The study presented in this thesis has a main objective to develop a framework using Superpave IDT test results as input parameters in order to evaluate the low temperature cracking performance of asphalt concrete mixtures. Moreover, the study aims to investigate micro-mechanically the low temperature cracking behavior of bitumen using atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a tool.

The numerical model has been developed by integrating fracture energy threshold into an asphalt concrete thermal fracture model, considering non-linear thermal contraction coefficients. Based on the asphalt concrete mixture viscoelastic properties, this integrated model can predict thermally induced stresses and fracture temperatures. The elastic, viscoelastic and fracture energy input parameters of the model were measured by conducting indirect tension tests and the thermal contraction coefficients were measured experimentally. The proposed model has been validated by comparing the predicted fracture temperatures with the results obtained from TSRST tests. It was found that, while there is a quantitative discrepancy, the predicted ranking was correct. In the measurement of the thermal contraction coefficients it was observed that the thermal contraction coefficient in asphalt concrete is non-linear in the temperature range of interest for low temperature cracking. The implications of having non-linear thermal contraction coefficient were investigated numerically.

In an effort to understand the effect of bitumen properties on low temperature fatigue cracking, AFM was used to characterize the morphology of bitumen. The AFM topographic and phase contrast image confirmed the existence of bee-shaped microstructure and different phases. The bitumen samples were subjected to both environmental and mechanical loading and after loading, micro-cracks appeared in the interfaces of the bitumen surface, confirming bitumen itself may also crack. It was also found that the presence of wax and wax crystallization plays a vital role in low temperature cracking performance of bitumen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , x, 18 p.
Series
Trita-TEC-LIC, ISSN 1653-445X ; 12:006
Keyword [en]
Low temperature cracking, asphalt concrete fracture mechanics, viscoelasticity, non-linear thermal contraction coefficient, atomic force microscopy, wax, wax crystallization
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Transport
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101384ISBN: 978-91-85539-91-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-101384DiVA: diva2:547274
Presentation
2012-09-14, B25, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20120828

Available from: 2012-08-28 Created: 2012-08-27 Last updated: 2012-08-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evaluation of fracture and moisture damage performance of wax modified asphalt mixtures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of fracture and moisture damage performance of wax modified asphalt mixtures
2012 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 13, no 1, 142-155 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study the fracture and moisture damage characteristics of wax modified asphalt mixtures were evaluated. Two types of commercial waxes (FT-paraffin and Asphaltan B) were added to bitumen of penetration grade 70/100. Using this wax modified and unmodified bitumen; total 48 specimens were produced from two sources of aggregates and two levels of gradation. Bitumen properties were determined by conventional test methods, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) testing. Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST) was used to evaluate low temperature cracking resistance and cracking behavior of asphalt mixture was investigated at 0 degrees C using Superpave Indirect Tensile Test (IDT). The influence of wax on the asphalt mixture resistance to cracking and moisture damage performance has been evaluated using Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) fracture mechanics and Superpave IDT test results. The addition of FT-paraffin and Asphaltan B showed better cracking and moisture damage resistance of the asphalt mixture compared to unmodified mixture, but FT-paraffin showed the largest effect on cracking resistance while Asphaltan B showed highest resistance to moisture damage. In BBR test results, mixtures modified with FT-paraffin showed lower limit m value (LmT) which implies minor negative effect in stress relaxation. However, according to TSRST results, the mixtures with both waxes had nearly same fracture temperature as mixture with unmodified bitumen.

Keyword
HMA fracture mechanics, superpave IDT, moisture damage, cracking, low temperature performance, wax
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98962 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2011.644120 (DOI)000305177400010 ()2-s2.0-84863608671 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120706

Available from: 2012-07-06 Created: 2012-07-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Low temperature cracking performance of WMA with the use of the Superpave indirect tensile test
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low temperature cracking performance of WMA with the use of the Superpave indirect tensile test
2012 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 30, 643-649 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low temperature cracking of wax modified bitumen and asphalt mixtures were studied using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Superpave IDT and Thermal Stress Restrained Specimens Test (TSRST). Two types of commercial waxes (FT-paraffin and Asphaltan-B) were added to 70/100 penetration grade bitumen. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) fracture mechanics was used to determine fracture parameters. Master curves obtained from DSR and BBR test results showed stiffening effect due to wax additive at low temperature. The analysis of covariance was performed using a General Linear Model (GLM) on the Superpave IDT test results for Energy Ratio (ER) by using SPSS (Statistical Program for Social Sciences). Statistical analysis of Superpave IDT results showed a minor negative effect of wax modification at lower temperatures. Statistical analysis also showed that fracture parameters are highly temperature dependent and the two types of aggregate used did not play any significant role in low temperature cracking performance. Results obtained from TSRST tests indicate wax modification has a minor negative effect in low temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixtures.

Keyword
Low temperature cracking, Wax, Warm mix asphalt, Superpave IDT, HMA fracture mechanics
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Infrastruktur
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49723 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.12.013 (DOI)000301990300075 ()2-s2.0-84855497420 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120504Available from: 2011-11-29 Created: 2011-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Evaluation of the low temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixtures utilizing HMA fracture mechanics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the low temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixtures utilizing HMA fracture mechanics
2013 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 47, 594-600 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, the low temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixture has been investigated numerically and experimentally. To do so, the HMA thermal fracture model has extended by including fracture energy threshold and non-linear thermal contraction coefficient. This extended model is capable to predict thermally induced stress and fracture temperature, which is validated with experimental results obtained from three different types of asphalt mixtures. From the parametric study, it was observed that understanding the influence of thermal contraction coefficient, the cooling rate and the creep compliance parameters can make a significant contribution to the material's sustainability. From the analysis, it was found that this extended model can be utilized to evaluate the low temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixtures and capable to provide correct ranking. Interestingly, non-linear thermal contraction coefficient gave much better prediction than linear approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Low temperature cracking, Thermal stress, Fracture temperature, Thermal contraction coefficient, Asphalt mixture
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-67173 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.05.031 (DOI)000325232600065 ()2-s2.0-84879052134 (Scopus ID)
Projects
T7728
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20131107

Available from: 2012-01-27 Created: 2012-01-27 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Micro-Mechanical Investigation of Low Temperature Fatigue Cracking Behaviour of Bitumen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micro-Mechanical Investigation of Low Temperature Fatigue Cracking Behaviour of Bitumen
2012 (English)In: 7th RILEM International Conference on Cracking in Pavements: Mechanisms, Modeling, Testing, Detection and Prevention Case Histories / [ed] Scarpas, A.; Kringos, N.; Al-Qadi, I.; Loizos, A., Springer Netherlands, 2012, 1281-1290 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In an effort to understand the effect of low temperature fatigue cracking, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the morphology of bitumen. In addition, thermal analysis and chemical characterization was done using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thin-layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC/FID), respectively. The AFM topographic and phase contrast image confirmed the existence of bee-shaped microstructure and different phases. The bitumen samples were subjected to both environmental and mechanical loading and after loading, micro-cracks appeared in the interfaces of the bitumen surface, confirming bitumen itself may also crack. It was also found that the presence of wax and wax crystallization plays a vital role in low temperature cracking performance of bitumen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2012
Series
RILEM Book series, ISSN 2211-0844 ; 4
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-91314 (URN)2-s2.0-84874326926 (Scopus ID)978-94-007-4565-0 (ISBN)
Conference
7th RILEM International Conference on Cracking in Pavements, 20-22 June, 2012, Delft, Netherlands.
Projects
T7728
Note

QC 20120730

Available from: 2012-07-30 Created: 2012-03-13 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Thermally Induced Fracture Performance of Asphalt Mixtures(867 kB)1744 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 867 kBChecksum SHA-512
c413e8f0bd8c98541eac787f41476d95848296f3545c4a57a16acfb171c0419928a4267628bc488bf6d18446993beda05da6387c4f5f27d7cea2ac58a5ba753f
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Das, Prabir Kumar
By organisation
Highway and Railway Engineering
Infrastructure Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 1744 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 637 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf