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Trophic interactions and behaviour: Studies relevant to a Baltic Sea biomanipulation
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main theme of this thesis is the interactions of animals with the environment and each other. The thesis was written within the framework of a biomanipulation project “Pikeperch in Himmerfjärden”. With the aim to investigate possible trophic pit-falls, give the manipulation the best possible start, and find ways to monitor the progression of the manipulation. In Paper I the diet of the invader cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi is analysed with stable isotopes; conducted prior to stocking. C.pengoi has a preference for large copepods, indicating possible competition with fish. Paper II investigates the behavioural differences between pikeperch fingerlings reared in different environments (pond vs. tank). Results suggest that fish reared in semi-natural ponds are more likely to survive directly after stocking. In Paper III and IV, the diel vertical migrations (DVM) of copepods are in focus. In Paper III the migrations of two copepod species: Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis are studied over season and life stage. The amplitude of migration was found to increase with ontogeny for both species, indicating evasion of visual predators. Paper IV examines the varying migratory patterns of adult female E. affinis finding that these animals migrate more actively when feeding conditions deteriorate and growth decreases. The overall conclusions of the thesis are that behavioural, not only direct trophic interactions are key when studying ecosystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University , 2012. , 31 p.
Keyword [en]
zooplankton, non-indigenous species, selectivity; food web, rearing environment, fish stocking, Sander lucioperca, diel vertical migration, ontogeny, ovigerous
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79075ISBN: 978-91-7447-567-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-79075DiVA: diva2:546978
Public defence
2012-10-05, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoraldefense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status asfollows: Paper2: In press. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-08-26 Last updated: 2012-08-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Assessing diet of the non-indigenous predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi using stable isotopes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing diet of the non-indigenous predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi using stable isotopes
2012 (English)In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 34, no 5, 376-387 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the Baltic Sea, the predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi is a non-indigenous species that has potential to compete for mesozooplankton with pelagic zooplanktivorous fish. To understand the extent of diet overlap with these fishes in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper, we studied the feeding of C. pengoi using stable C-13 and N-15 isotope signatures of the predator and possible prey. Feasible combinations of sources were estimated in two ways: (i) with the IsoSource mixing model, and (ii) temporal-tracking analysis. Further, contribution of different prey was related to ambient zooplankton composition to gauge selectivity. The modelling results indicate that C. pengoi is an opportunistic generalist predator with a positive selection towards older copepodites (CIVVI) of Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, which also have the greatest contribution to its diet. Positive selection towards podonid Cladocera is also likely. In contrast, evidence for extensive feeding on microzooplankton was inconclusive, and bosminids were not found to be an important prey in the zooplankton assemblages studied. As the derived diet of C. pengoi overlaps greatly with that of zooplanktivorous fish, food competition between these zooplanktivores is possible.

Keyword
mixing models, temporal-tracking analysis, selectivity, foodweb interactions, zooplankton
National Category
Biological Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-76049 (URN)10.1093/plankt/fbs008 (DOI)000302299400003 ()
Note
3Available from: 2012-05-09 Created: 2012-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Rearing environment affect important life skills in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rearing environment affect important life skills in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)
2012 (English)In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 17, no 3-4, 291-304 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of rearing environment on the behaviour of young-of-the-year pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) bred at three different production facilities was investigated. Two groups were reared in semi-natural ponds and one group in indoor tanks. Exploratory, foraging and anti-predator behaviours were studied in aquarium experiments. There were no significant differences between pond- and tank-reared fish in reluctance to explore their new environment, but pond-reared fish spent significantly more time in macro-vegetation. Pond-reared fish were significantly faster to start foraging on live prey (Neomysis integer) that they had not encountered before. As compared with tank-reared fish, pond-reared fish were also significantly more active in their anti-predator response. Rearing environment obviously influences the development of important life skills. These differences may impact the success rate when stocking young-of-the-year pikeperch into natural waters.

National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75276 (URN)000306093600010 ()
Available from: 2012-04-16 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Ontogenetic and seasonal changes in diel vertical migration amplitude of the calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Acartia spp. in a coastal area of the northern Baltic Proper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ontogenetic and seasonal changes in diel vertical migration amplitude of the calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Acartia spp. in a coastal area of the northern Baltic Proper
2012 (English)In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 34, no 4, 298-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied diel vertical migration (DVM) of the six copepodite stages of two of the most abundant crustacean zooplankton in the Baltic Sea, the calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Acartia spp. The study was conducted monthly from May through October in a bay in the northwestern Baltic proper. Fish biomass, phytoplankton abundance and temperature were obtained in conjunction with the zooplankton sampling. Both copepod species performed DVM. With the exception of females, all E. affinis copepodite stages performed migrations of over 10 m with only a slight increase with the copepodite stage. Adult female E. affinis remained at depth with only slight upward movement at night. In Acartia spp., DVM amplitude increased with stage and size, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in behaviour; although they had a less pronounced DVM than E. affinis. Although DVM amplitude increased with size, indicative of visual predation, fish biomass did not correlate with the amplitude of DVM. However, fish were present throughout the study period. We surmise that these ontogenetic shifts in behaviour are due to size increase and therefore visibility to predators and that the difference in DVM between the species may well be a result of physiological differences and reproductive strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2012
Keyword
weighted mean depth, Baltic Sea, zooplankton, thermocline, depth distribution
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75274 (URN)10.1093/plankt/fbs001 (DOI)000301360800004 ()
Available from: 2012-04-16 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Growth, reproduction and genetic variation : testing causes of variable diel vertical migration in the copepod Eurytemora affinis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth, reproduction and genetic variation : testing causes of variable diel vertical migration in the copepod Eurytemora affinis
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Haplotype, RNA:DNA, reproductive stage, ovigerous, DVM, Baltic Sea
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79063 (URN)
Available from: 2012-08-25 Created: 2012-08-25 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved

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