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Ionic Circuits for Transduction of Electronic Signals into Biological Stimuli
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9845-446X
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern electronics has revolutionized the way information is processed and stored in our society. In health care and in biology it is of great interest to utilize technology to regulate physiology and to control the signaling pathways. Therefore, the coupling of electronic signals to biological functions is of great importance to many fields within the life sciences. In addition to the conventional inorganic electronics, a new branch of electronics based on organic materials has emerged during the last three decades. Some of these organic materials are very attractive for interacting with living systems since they are soft, flexible and have benevolent chemical properties.

This thesis is focused on the development of ionic circuits for transduction of electronic signals into biological stimuli. By developing such an intermediate system technology between traditional electronics and biology, signals with chemical specificity may be controlled and addressed electronically. First, a technology is described that enables direct conversion of electronic signals into ionic ones by the use biocompatible conductive polymer electrodes. The ionic bio-signals are transported in lateral channel configurations on plastic chips and precise spatiotemporal delivery of neurotransmitter, to regulate signaling in cultured neuronal cells, is demonstrated. Then, in order to achieve more advanced ionic circuit functionality, ion bipolar junction transistors were developed. These ion transistors comprise three terminals, in which a small ion current through one terminal modulates a larger ion current between the other two terminals. The devices are functional at physiological salt concentrations and are utilized to modulate neurotransmitter delivery to control Ca2+ signaling in neuronal cells. Finally, by integrating two types of transistors into the same chip, complementary NOT and NAND ion logic gates were realized for the first time. Together, the findings presented in this thesis lay the groundwork for more complex ionic circuits, such as matrix addressable delivery circuits, in which dispensing of chemical and biological signals can be directed at high spatiotemporal resolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. , 60 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1460
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80390ISBN: 978-91-7519-857-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-80390DiVA: diva2:546722
Public defence
2012-09-21, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 11:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-08-24 Created: 2012-08-24 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Translating Electronic Currents to Precise Acetylcholine-Induced Neuronal Signaling Using an Organic Electrophoretic Delivery Device
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translating Electronic Currents to Precise Acetylcholine-Induced Neuronal Signaling Using an Organic Electrophoretic Delivery Device
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 44, 4442- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A miniaturized organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) based on conjugated polymers is developed for delivery of positively charged biomolecules. Characterization shows that applied voltage can precisely modulate the delivery rate of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The capability of the device is demonstrated by convection-free, spatiotemporally resolved delivery of acetylcholine via a 10 mu m channel for dynamic stimulation of single neuronal cells.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52901 (URN)10.1002/adma.200900187 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-01-13 Created: 2010-01-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03
2. Spatially Controlled Amyloid Reactions Using Organic Electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatially Controlled Amyloid Reactions Using Organic Electronics
Show others...
2010 (English)In: SMALL, ISSN 1613-6810, Vol. 6, no 19, 2153-2161 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abnormal protein aggregates, so called amyloid fibrils, are mainly known as pathological hallmarks of a wide range of diseases, but in addition these robust well-ordered self-assembled natural nanostructures can also be utilized for creating distinct nanomaterials for bioelectronic devices. However, current methods for producing amyloid fibrils in vitro offer no spatial control. Herein, we demonstrate a new way to produce and spatially control the assembly of amyloid-like structures using an organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) to pump distinct cations to a reservoir containing a negatively charged polypeptide. The morphology and kinetics of the created proteinaceous nanomaterials depends on the ion and current used, which we leveraged to create layers incorporating different conjugated thiophene derivatives, one fluorescent (p-FTAA) and one conducting (PEDOT-S). We anticipate that this new application for the OEIP will be useful for both biological studies of amyloid assembly and fibrillogenesis as well as for creating new bioelectronic nanomaterials and devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2010
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61175 (URN)10.1002/smll.201001157 (DOI)000283274100013 ()
Available from: 2010-11-08 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2017-02-03
3. Ion bipolar junction transistors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion bipolar junction transistors
2010 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ISSN 0027-8424, Vol. 107, no 22, 9929-9932 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Academy of Sciences; 1999, 2010
Keyword
ionic transistor, ionic transport, conducting polymers, cell signaling
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57384 (URN)10.1073/pnas.0913911107 (DOI)000278246000006 ()
Available from: 2010-06-18 Created: 2010-06-18 Last updated: 2017-02-03
4. Toward Complementary Ionic Circuits: The npn Ion Bipolar Junction Transistor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Complementary Ionic Circuits: The npn Ion Bipolar Junction Transistor
2011 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 133, no 26, 10141-10145 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many biomolecules are charged and may therefore be transported with ionic currents. As a step toward addressable ionic delivery circuits, we report on the development of a npn ion bipolar junction transistor (npn-IBJT) as an active control element of anionic currents in general, and specifically, demonstrate actively modulated delivery of the neurotransmitter glutamic acid. The functional materials of this transistor are ion exchange layers and conjugated polymers. The npn-IBJT shows stable transistor characteristics over extensive time of operation and ion current switch times below 10 s. Our results promise complementary chemical circuits similar to the electronic equivalence, which has proven invaluable in conventional electronic applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACS American Chemical Society, 2011
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69799 (URN)10.1021/ja200492c (DOI)000292715600041 ()
Available from: 2011-08-10 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08
5. Logic gates based on ion transistors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Logic gates based on ion transistors
2012 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 3, no 871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78819 (URN)10.1038/ncomms1869 (DOI)000304611400066 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research||VINNOVA (OBOE - Strategic Research Center for Organic Bioelectronics)||Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation||Royal Swedish Academy of Science||Swedish Research Council|621-2008-2642|Onnesjo Foundation||Available from: 2012-06-21 Created: 2012-06-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07

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