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Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators for Frequency Control and Sensing Applications
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (The Thin Films Group)
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The recent development of the commercially viable thin film electro-acoustic technology has triggered a growing interest in the research of plate guided wave or Lamb wave components owing to their unique characteristics. In the present thesis i) an experimental study of the thin film plate resonators (FPAR) performance operating on the lowest symmetrical Lamb wave (S0) propagating in highly textured AlN membranes versus a variety of design parameters has been performed. The S0 mode is excited through an Interdigital Transducer and confined within the structure by means of reflection from metal strip gratings. Devices operating in the vicinity of the stop-band center exhibiting a Q-value of up to 3000 at a frequency around 900MHz have been demonstrated. Temperature compensation of this type of devices has been studied theoretically and successfully realized experimentally for the first time. Further, integrated circuit-compatible S0 Lamb based two-port FPAR stabilized oscillators exhibiting phase noise of -92 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz frequency offset with feasible thermal noise floor below -180 dBc/Hz have been tested under high power for a couple of weeks. More specifically, the FPARs under test have been running without any performance degradation at up to 27 dBm loop power. Further, the S0 mode was experimentally demonstrated to be highly mass and pressure sensitive as well as suitable for in-liquid operation, which together with low phase noise and high Q makes it very suitable for sensor applications; ii) research in view of FPARs operating on other types of Lamb waves as well as novel operation principles has been initiated. In this work, first results on the design, fabrication and characterization of two novel type resonators: The Zero Group Velocity Resonators (ZGVR) and The Intermode-Coupled Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (IC-FPAR), exploiting new principles of operation have been successfully demonstrated. The former exploits the intrinsic zero group velocity feature of the S1 Lamb mode for certain combination of design parameters while the latter takes advantage of the intermode interaction (involving scattering) between S0 and A1 Lamb modes through specially designed metal strip gratings (couplers). Thus both type of resonators operate on principles of confining energy under IDT other than reflection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. , 80 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 959
Keyword [en]
Electro-Acoustics, FPAR, Lamb waves, aluminium nitride, interdigital transducer, phase noise, temperature compensation, power handling, sensitivity, zero group velocity, intermode coupling
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics; Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-178592ISBN: 978-91-554-8437-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-178592DiVA: diva2:543908
Public defence
2012-09-28, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Läggerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-09-06 Created: 2012-08-01 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Micromachined Thin Film Plate Acoustic Wave Resonators (FPAR) Part II
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micromachined Thin Film Plate Acoustic Wave Resonators (FPAR) Part II
2009 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, ISSN 0885-3010, E-ISSN 1525-8955, Vol. 56, no 12, 2701-2710 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Improved performance thin-film plate acousticwave resonators (FPAR) using the lowest order symmetricLamb wave (S0) propagating in highly textured AlN membraneshave been previously demonstrated for the first time.In this work, an experimental study of the resonators’ performancevs. a variety of design parameters is performed. Devicesoperating in the vicinity of the stopband center exhibiting aQ-value of up to 3000 at a frequency of around 875 MHz aredemonstrated. Further, low-loss high-Q micromachined 2-portlongitudinally coupled thin-film resonators using the S0 modeare demonstrated for the first time. For the analysis of theproposed structures, the coupling-of-modes (COM) approachis successfully employed. Initially, the COM model is used forthe extraction of physical parameters from one-port FPARmeasurements. Subsequently, using the COM model, a satisfactoryagreement with the proposed experimental frequencycharacteristics of S0 2-port FPARs has been achieved, andpossibilities for further improvements in the performance discussed.Finally, the frequency spectrum of the one-port deviceshas been studied and the excited plate modes at differentfrequencies identified and presented with their Q-factors andtemperature coefficients of frequency (TCF).

Keyword
Thin films, Resonator, Micromachining, MEMS, NEMS
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-111379 (URN)10.1109/TUFFC.2009.1361 (DOI)000272593100011 ()
Projects
VR Funded "Thin Film Guided Microacoustic Waves in Periodical Structures: Theory and Applications"
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-5056
Available from: 2009-12-12 Created: 2009-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12
2. Micromachined thermally compensated thin film Lamb wave resonator for frequency control and sensing applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micromachined thermally compensated thin film Lamb wave resonator for frequency control and sensing applications
2009 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 19, no 3, 035018- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Micromachined thin film plate acoustic wave resonators (FPAR) utilizing the lowest order symmetric Lamb wave (S0) propagating in highly textured 2μm thick Aluminum Nitride (AlN) membranes have been successfully demonstrated [1]. The proposed devices have a SAW-based design and exhibit Q factors of up to 3000 at a frequency around 900MHz as well as design flexibility with respect to the required motional resistance. However, a notable drawback of the proposed devices is non-zero temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) which lies in the range -20 ppm/K to –25 ppm/K. Thus, despite the promising features demonstrated, further device optimization is required. In this work temperature compensation of thin AlN film Lamb wave resonators is studied and experimentally demonstrated. Temperature compensation while retaining at the same time the device electromechanical coupling is experimentally demonstrated. The zero TCF Lamb wave resonators are fabricated onto composite AlN/SiO2 membranes. Q factors of around 1400 have been measured at a frequency of around 755 MHz. Finally, the impact of technological issues on the device performance is discussed in view of improving the device performance.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89404 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/19/3/035018 (DOI)000263678200019 ()
Projects
WISENET
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-5056
Available from: 2009-02-12 Created: 2009-02-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Thin film plate acoustic resonators for integrated microwave power oscillator applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thin film plate acoustic resonators for integrated microwave power oscillator applications
2011 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 47, no 7, 452-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two-port film plate acoustic resonators (FPAR) devices operating on the lowest order symmetric Lamb wave mode (S0) in C-oriented AlN membranes on Si were fabricated and tested for their power handling capabilities in a feedback-loop power oscillator circuit. The FPAR was operated at an incident power level of 24 dBm for several weeks without performance degradation. Its flicker noise constant was calculated from close-in phase noise data as αR=2.1×10^−36/Hz. The results indicate that IC-compatible S0 FPARs are well suited for integrated microwave oscillators with thermal noise floor (TNF) levels below −175 dBc/Hz.

Keyword
Powe oscillator, low noise, MEMS, piezo
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology; Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150468 (URN)10.1049/el.2011.0381 (DOI)000288893100023 ()
Projects
VR "Thin Film Guided Microacoustic Waves in Periodical Systems: Theory and Applications"
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-5056
Available from: 2011-03-30 Created: 2011-03-30 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Sensitivity Features of Thin Film Plate Acoustic Wave Resonators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensitivity Features of Thin Film Plate Acoustic Wave Resonators
2011 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 11, no 12, 3330-3331 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thin film plate acoustic resonators devices operating in the lowest order symmetric Lamb wave mode (S0) in coriented aluminum nitride (AlN) membranes on Si were fabricated and tested for their sensitivities to pressure and mass as well as for their ability to work in liquid environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Sensors Council, 2011
Keyword
Film bulk acoustic resonators, Resonant frequency, Sensitivity, Sensors, Surface acoustic waves
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology; Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-157877 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2011.2158094 (DOI)000301878500019 ()
Projects
VR "Thin Film Guided Microacoustic Waves in Periodical Systems: Theory and Applications"
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-5056
Available from: 2011-08-24 Created: 2011-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. Highly Mass-Sensitive Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (FPAR)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly Mass-Sensitive Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (FPAR)
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 11, no 7, 6942-6953 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented.

Keyword
resonator, aluminum nitride, membrane, HMDSO, gravimetric, sensitivity
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology; Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-157836 (URN)10.3390/s110706942 (DOI)000293069200027 ()
Projects
VR "Thin Film Guided Microacoustic Waves in Periodical Systems: Theory and Applications"
Available from: 2011-08-24 Created: 2011-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
6. Thin-film zero-group-velocity Lamb wave resonator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thin-film zero-group-velocity Lamb wave resonator
2011 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 99, no 3, 033505Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A concept for the development of thin film micro-acoustic resonators is demonstrated. The basicprinciples for the design and fabrication of zero-group-velocity Lamb acoustic wave resonators onc-textured thin aluminum nitride films are presented. The experimental results demonstrate that thezero-group-velocity waves can be employed in high frequency resonators with small form factors.

Keyword
acoustic resonators, aluminium compounds, micromechanical resonators, surface acoustic waves
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology; Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-157833 (URN)10.1063/1.3614559 (DOI)000293679000069 ()
Projects
VR, "Thin Film Guided Microacoustic Waves in Periodical Systems: Theory and Applications"
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-5056
Available from: 2011-08-23 Created: 2011-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
7. An intermode-coupled thin-film micro-acoustic resonator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An intermode-coupled thin-film micro-acoustic resonator
2012 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, no 8, 085004- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel concept for the development of thin-film micro-acoustic resonators based on the coupling between different plate acoustic modes was demonstrated. The basic principles for the design and fabrication of intermode-coupled plate acoustic wave resonators on c-textured thin AlN films were presented and first experimental proof of coupling between laterally propagating waves and BAW was demonstrated. The experimental results demonstrate that the grating-assisted intermode coupling can be employed in high-frequency resonators inheriting the low dispersive nature of the S0 mode in combination with the energy localization in the plate bulk typical for the fundamental thickness shear resonance.

Keyword
acoustic resonator, aluminium nitride, Lamb wave, mode conversion
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics; Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-178590 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/22/8/085004 (DOI)000306649000004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-5056
Available from: 2012-08-01 Created: 2012-08-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf