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Power electronics for resistance spot welding equipment
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8466-946X
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Resistance spot welding is an inexpensive and efficient way ofjoining metals. It has extensive applications in household appliancesand in automotive industries. The traditional approach in relation tospot welding machines is to use 50 Hz welding transformers. Thedrawback associated with these transformers is that they are both heavyand bulky. Moreover, the fusing requirements become larger due toincreased welding power.With the development of high power semiconductor switches andDC-DC converter topologies, it is now possible to develop inverterdrive resistance spot welding equipment (RSE) which can be operatedat frequencies higher than the 50Hz frequency. The advantage of usinghigh frequencies is the reduction in the size of the transformer.Moreover, the fusing requirements are relaxed, as the power is sharedbetween three phases.In many industrial applications long welding arms are requiredbetween the transformer and the weld spot, which increases theinductance. The parasitic inductance in welding arms limits themaximum rate of change of the current. In order achieve a higher powerthe current has to be rectified. To rectify a current of the order of tenthof kA is challenging task and is one of the major sources of loss.The full bridge converter topology is used for the inverter drive RSE.The power switches used in the converter are IGBT. In RSE, the DClink capacitors are used to store high energy. In the case of circuitfailure, the stored energy can cause the IGBT device to rupture and inorder to avoid this, a protection scheme is discussed in this work.A controller circuit, using a DSPIC33FJ16GS502 controller, isdeveloped in order to drive a high frequency full bridge converter,which can also be used to drive the IGBTs in the RSE.The secondary side welding current is of the order of kilo amperes.A requirement for the welding control is that the current must be sensedprecisely and in order to fulfill this, a Hall sensor system has beendeveloped. This developed circuit is used in the feed-back control of theRSE. The presence of metallic objects and tools in the vicinity of theHall sensor system can affect its precision. We have estimated theivexclusion distance for the metal objects from the sensor by means of amodel developed in COMSOL Multiphysics software.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2012. , 60 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 79
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16699Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-87103-12-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-16699DiVA: diva2:543835
Available from: 2012-08-10 Created: 2012-08-10 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Study the influence of the alignment and  nearby metallic objects on the Hall sensor system for current measurement in Resistance Spot Welding Machine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study the influence of the alignment and  nearby metallic objects on the Hall sensor system for current measurement in Resistance Spot Welding Machine
2011 (English)In: 2011 10th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, EEEIC.EU 2011 - Conference Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, Art. no. 5874717- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A technique for measuring the current of a stationaryspot welding unit using a Hall sensor system is implemented. HallEffect sensor is used to sense the strength of the magnetic fieldproduced by the current, flowing through the welding electrodes,on the secondary side of welding transformer. In contrast to acurrent transformer the Hall Effect sensor can read a DC currentand can thus be utilized in direct current welding equipments. Inthis paper the influence of the sensor position and presence of thetools or other materials in the proximity of the sensor that effectthe sensor reading is investigated. COMSOL Multiphysicssoftware is used to investigate these effects and a circuit design isimplemented according to the conclusion drawn from the simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
Current; Hall effect sensor; Magnetic flux Density; Reistance spot welding
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14582 (URN)10.1109/EEEIC.2011.5874717 (DOI)2-s2.0-79959968204 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
2011 10th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, EEEIC.EU 2011;Rome;8 May 2011through11 May 2011;Category numberCFP1151I-CDR;Code85363
Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
2. A study of IGBT rupture phenomenon in medium frequency resistance welding machine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of IGBT rupture phenomenon in medium frequency resistance welding machine
2013 (English)In: Electrical Machines and Power Electronics and 2011 Electromotion Joint Conference (ACEMP), 2011 International Aegean Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 236-239 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Inverter drive resistance spot welding machines are becoming a good choice of welding because of the increased machine efficiency and output power. The DC link capacitors in spot welding equipment store a large amount of energy. In case of any failure, the IGBT in the inverter has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture. This rupture can damage the converter, drive down time and personal injury which may lead to the machinery certification problems. IGBT failure detection and solution for protection of these failures in resistance welding machines have not been reported in literature. Literature study of the IGBT failure, rupture, fault detection and protection has been carried out for inverter drives in power applications. On the basis of the findings some protection schemes and important measures in the design of the machine have been adopted which have resulted in the reduced risk of IGBT failure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Keyword
Resistance welding; IGBT rupture; Inverter drive; Medium frequency spot welding machines
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14565 (URN)10.1109/ACEMP.2011.6490602 (DOI)2-s2.0-84876460443 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-1-4673-5002-0 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
Acemp - electromotion 2011, 8-10 September 2011 Istanbul - Turkey
Available from: 2011-10-04 Created: 2011-10-04 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
3. High Frequency Full Bridge Converter using Multilayer Coreless Printed Circuit Board Step-up Power Transformer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Frequency Full Bridge Converter using Multilayer Coreless Printed Circuit Board Step-up Power Transformer
Show others...
2011 (English)In: 2011 20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, ECCTD 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 805-808 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In designing switch mode power supply (SMPS), thedesirable feature is to have an efficient and compact design. Themain idea is to increase the switching frequency and reduce thebulky magnetic parts of the converter. This leads to a compactsize, less weight, reduced cost and increased power density of theconverter. This paper presents a high frequency full bridge DC toDC converter, using a multilayer coreless printed circuit board(PCB) step-up power transformer. The converter was simulatedand also implemented on the PCB. The pulse width modulated(PWM) signals were generated, using a microcontroller, to switchthe Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET).The design of the converter is tested up to the power levels of 5Watts with the switching frequency in 2 to 3MHz range. Theenergy efficiency of the converter is 74.86% at 2.4 MHz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
Full bridge converter; MHz frequency region; Multi layer PCB transformer; Power MOSFET; Switch mode power supply
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14583 (URN)10.1109/ECCTD.2011.6043837 (DOI)2-s2.0-80155123534 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-145770618-9 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
2011 20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, ECCTD 2011;Linkoping;29 August 2011through31 August 2011;Category numberCFP11ECC-ART;Code87118
Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved

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