Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Occupational exposure to fluorinated ski wax
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3722-4633
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) are used in the production of ski wax to reduce the friction between the snow and the ski. In this occupational study of ski wax technicians’ exposure to PFAS and particulate aerosol we have collected whole blood (wb) (n =94), air (n =84) and aerosol (n =159) samples at World Cup events from 2007-2011.

We have analysed the blood, air and aerosol with respect to 13 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), 3 fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), 3 fluorotelomer acids (FTCAs) and 3 unsaturated fluorotelomer acids (FTUCAs). Further, we assessed the exposure to 3 particulate aerosol fractions (inhalable, respirable and total aerosol) in air.

In comparison to a general population, several of the PFCA blood levels are elevated in the technicians’, primarily  erfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononate (PFNA) with concentrations up to 628 and 163 ng/mL wb, respectively. Further,  we detected FTUCAs and FTCAs in the blood, suggesting biotransformation of FTOHs to PFCAs. The metabolites 5:3 and 7:3 FTCA were detected in all blood samples at levels up to 6.1 and 3.9 ng/mL wb. Levels of perfluorohexadecanoic acid PFHxDA) and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were detected in the technician’s blood at mean concentration up to 4.22 ng/mL wb and 4.25 ng/mL wb.

The FTOH levels in air of the wax cabin during work ranged up to 997 000 ng/m3 (average=114 000 ng/m3 ) and PFOA up to 4 890 ng/m3 (average= 526 ng/m3 . FTOHs were not detected in aerosols but PFOA showed average levels of 12 000 ng/m3 (range=1 230- 46 900 ng/m3 ).

The occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m3 was exceeded in 37% of the personal measurements with aerosol  concentrations up to 15 mg/m3 . Keywords : Perfluorinated, polyfluorinated, FIS, occupational exposure, ski wax,  iotransformation, metabolism, fluorotelomer alcohol, fluorotelomer acid, aerosol, dust, UPLC/MS-MS, GC/MS-MS

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2012. , 73 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 11
Keyword [en]
Perfluorinated, polyfluorinated, FIS, occupational exposure, ski wax, biotransformation, metabolism, fluorotelomer alcohol, fluorotelomer acid, aerosol, dust, UPLC/MS-MS, GC/MS-MS
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24289ISBN: 978-91-7668-887-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-24289DiVA: diva2:543228
Public defence
2012-09-28, Hörsal P2, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Falultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2012-08-07 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 6, 2150-2155 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A time trend study focusing on ski waxing technicians' exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) from fluorinated wax fumes was performed in 2007/2008. Levels of eight perfluorocarboxylates and three perfluorosulfonates were analyzed in monthly blood samples from eight technicians, Samples were collected before the ski season, i.e., preseason, then at four AS World Cup competitions in cross country skiing, and finally during an unexposed 5-month postseason period. The perfluorinated carboxylates perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) bioaccumulate, and continued exposure may contribute to elevated levels in ski technicians compared to the general population. The wax technicians' median blood level of PFOA is 112 ng/mL compared to 2.5 ng/mL in the general Swedish population. A significant correlation was found between number of working years and levels of perfluorocarboxylates. The PFOA levels in three technicians with "low" initial levels of PFOA (< 10.0 ng/mL in preseason blood) increased by 254, 134, and 120%, whereas five technicians with "high" initial levels (> 100 ng/mL in preseason sample) were at steady state. PFHxA is suggested to have a short half-life in humans relative the other perfluorocarboxylates. The levels of perfluorosulfonates were unaffected by the wax exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, USA: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2010
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry; Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12995 (URN)10.1021/es9034733 (DOI)000275325600044 ()20158198 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77949394533 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 19, 7717-7722 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Levels of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in different environmental and biological compartments have been known for some time, but the routes of exposure still remain unclear. The opinions are divergent whether the exposure to general populations occurs mainly indirect through precursor compounds or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed elevated blood levels of PFCAs in ski wax technicians compared to a general population. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs, perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), precursor compounds that are known to degrade to PFCAs, in air collected in the breathing zone of ski wax technicians during work. We collected air samples by using ISOLUTE ENV+ cartridges connected to portable air pumps with an air flow of 2.0 L min(-1). PFCAs C5-C11 and PFSAs C4, C6, C8, and C10 were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and FTOHs 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 with GC-MS/MS. The results show daily inhalation exposure of 8:2 FTOH in mu g/m(3) air which is up to 800 times higher than levels of PFOA with individual levels ranging between 830-255000 ng/m(3) air. This suggests internal exposure of PFOA through biotransformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA and PFNA in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2010
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry; Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12870 (URN)10.1021/es101951t (DOI)000282209700086 ()2-s2.0-77957363918 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency: Cancer and Allergy Foundation; Swedish Winter sport Research Center at Mid Sweden University

Available from: 2011-01-05 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compund to perfluorocarboxylates in humans
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compund to perfluorocarboxylates in humans
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25984 (URN)
Note

Under review in Environmental International 2012-08-14.

Available from: 2012-09-24 Created: 2012-09-24 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
4. Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25986 (URN)
Note

Submitted to Journal of Environmental monitoring, 2012-08-16.

Available from: 2012-09-24 Created: 2012-09-24 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

omslag(286 kB)76 downloads
File information
File name COVER01.pdfFile size 286 kBChecksum SHA-512
32f3f85a55f1488dfe44ffedaea7886035044651af3b6f5810f8d611a07ad63ddcfc9750d271ff2e5571d6ed2b35bd7c2a9c9f5d0a3689cd9bb7a3d23b160126
Type coverMimetype application/pdf
spikblad(113 kB)13 downloads
File information
File name SPIKBLAD01.pdfFile size 113 kBChecksum SHA-512
52c8a739f560bb500cb9e60f308d8a8cc193c7631ead71d67e03436bcfc64316398a3345a5ca66e5094b45b308765e3ddf5f5112c39b590cbe9a6c5678bf01d1
Type spikbladMimetype application/pdf
summary(9283 kB)357 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 9283 kBChecksum SHA-512
85b1a72c4bc14f27d729b8e740a3db453a95fecae934fca4b7f21e8d85c2560ec11dbce36e4d8d3827f596b9ff66a061c247ab62c94f7ac3a00209f765bd339f
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Nilsson, Helena

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Nilsson, Helena
By organisation
School of Science and Technology
Chemical Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 357 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 369 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf